Concentration changes in the frequencies of Raman scattering spectra in binary molten salt systems of alkali metals with a common cation containing halide, nitrate and perchlorate anions are shown. The frequency constancy is noted when the composition of molten salt systems changes.
Keywords: melts, nitrates, perchlorates, alkali metal halides, raman spectra, binary salt systems
Parameters indicating the appearance of a glass-forming molten mixture in the melts of the salt system Ca(NO3)2 - KNO3 at a molar ratio of components of 3:2 are shown. The nonlinearity of the change in frequencies and line widths in the Raman scattering spectra of the anion NO3 was detected, which indicates a structural transformation in the molten mixture that correlates with a change in the viscosity of the mixture.
Keywords: melts, nitrates of alkali and alkaline earth metals, Raman spectra, binary salt systems
The work is based on the results of a survey conducted among students of Grozny and Rostov-on-Don at the end of 20219. The cognitive component was measured by a test method, using 11 primary features. According to them, an integral indicator of the cognitive perception of friendship for each respondent was calculated using a modified method of analyzing hierarchies. The affective component of student attitudes towards friendship was determined by the semantic differential technology Ch. Osgood, using a special semantic scale with 20 bimodal features. Based on the results obtained, the individual level of emotional perception of friendship was calculated within the framework of the previously developed phenomenological semantic model. Statistical analysis of the obtained indicators of cognitive and affective perception showed that both in general for the study groups and for the general population, the correlation coefficients are small. For Rostov, about 0.17, for Grozny-0.273, and for the total population of respondents for these two cities-0.243.The scattering of experimental data is close to isotropic. All this indicates the statistical independence of these two components of attitudes in general for the studied samples. This confirms both the generally accepted opinion and the previously obtained results (for several thousand respondents) when studying other social attitudes. However, for certain subgroups of the studied audience, the statistical relationship between these two parameters is more significant. Thus, approximately 1/3 of the respondents, both in Rostov and Grozny, indicated a higher level of emotional perception, compared to cognitive. For these subgroups, the correlation coefficient for Rostov is 0.8, for Grozny-0.87, and for the two cities in total – 0.79. For the remaining 2/3 of the respondents (they are characterized by a higher level of cognitive perception compared to emotional perception), the correlation coefficients are slightly lower, but still exceed the results obtained without dividing into subgroups. For students of Rostov-on-Don-0.5, Grozny-0.44, and for the two cities in total-0.46. The revealed statistical relationship between the studied components of attitudes is associated with the influence on the formation of these components of the psychological type of respondents. And the subgroups we have identified differ precisely in their psychological type. But this hypothesis requires further testing.
Keywords: friendship, attitudes, cognitive component, test method, affective component, semantic differential technology, statistical analysis, correlation, subgroups, statistical relationship
The work is based on the results of a survey conducted among students of Grozny and Rostov-on-Don at the end of 20219. The cognitive component was measured by a test method, using 11 primary features. According to them, an integral indicator of the cognitive perception of friendship for each respondent was calculated using a modified method of analyzing hierarchies. The affective component of student attitudes towards friendship was determined by the semantic differential technology Ch. Osgood, using a special semantic scale with 20 bimodal features. Based on the results obtained, the individual level of emotional perception of friendship was calculated within the framework of the previously developed phenomenological semantic model. Statistical analysis of the obtained indicators of cognitive and affective perception showed that both in general for the study groups and for the general population, the correlation coefficients are small. For Rostov, about 0.17, for Grozny-0.273, and for the total population of respondents for these two cities-0.243.The scattering of experimental data is close to isotropic. All this indicates the statistical independence of these two components of attitudes in general for the studied samples. This confirms both the generally accepted opinion and the previously obtained results (for several thousand respondents) when studying other social attitudes. However, for certain subgroups of the studied audience, the statistical relationship between these two parameters is more significant. Thus, approximately 1/3 of the respondents, both in Rostov and Grozny, indicated a higher level of emotional perception, compared to cognitive. For these subgroups, the correlation coefficient for Rostov is 0.8, for Grozny-0.87, and for the two cities in total – 0.79. For the remaining 2/3 of the respondents (they are characterized by a higher level of cognitive perception compared to emotional perception), the correlation coefficients are slightly lower, but still exceed the results obtained without dividing into subgroups. For students of Rostov-on-Don-0.5, Grozny-0.44, and for the two cities in total-0.46. The revealed statistical relationship between the studied components of attitudes is associated with the influence on the formation of these components of the psychological type of respondents. And the subgroups we have identified differ precisely in their psychological type. But this hypothesis requires further testing.
Keywords: friendship, attitudes, cognitive component, test method, affective component, semantic differential technology, statistical analysis, correlation, subgroups, statistical relationship
The work is based on the results of a pilot survey conducted among students of Grozny State Technical University at the end of 2019. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. Designed to measure the affective and cognitive components of the attitudes under consideration. The study of the emotional attitude of students to friendship is reflected in the previous work. This article is devoted to the analysis of the cognitive perception of this social phenomenon. The results of a comparative analysis of these two components of the installations are also presented. A technique known as the test tradition in sociology was used to measure cognitive attitudes toward friendships. Students evaluated this parameter based on 11 primary characteristics. Further processing was carried out on the basis of the modernized method of analyzing hierarchies. In contrast to the generally accepted technology, the hierarchical structure of priorities was not set in advance. The priorities of the next level were determined by parallel factorization of the parameters of the underlying level. It is found that 11 primary parameters are reduced to three factors of the next level, which in turn form an integral indicator of the cognitive perception of friendship. The revealed hierarchical structure reflects various aspects of such cognitive perception. The paper presents the distribution functions of the obtained factors.
Keywords: friendship, cognitive component of attitudes, test technology, method of hierarchy analysis, factorization, integral indicator of cognitive perception, distribution functions by respondents
The work is based on experimental results obtained by a survey among students of Grozny and Rostov-on-Don. The affective component of students ' attitudes towards friendship was determined by the technology of semantic differential Ch. Osgood. The distribution functions of the respondents ' emotional attitude to virtual and real friendship, calculated in the framework of a previously developed nonlinear stochastic model, are presented. The results of the comparative analysis show that in the group as a whole, the difference in the perception of real friendship between the respondents of both cities is small. On average, Grozny residents are a little more positive about real friendship. Students of both studied samples perceive virtual friendship in general more negatively than real friendship. But here the difference in relations is more significant. Subgroups with a positive perception in Grozny are about 10% less. On average, Grozny residents are more negative about virtual friendship than Rostov residents. Most likely, this is due to a difference in mentality.
Keywords: friendship, virtual friendship, affective component of attitudes, semantic differential technology, nonlinear phenomenological model, comparative analysis
The work is based on experimental results obtained by a survey among students of Grozny and Rostov-on-Don. The affective component of students ' attitudes towards friendship was determined by the technology of semantic differential Ch. Osgood. The distribution functions of the respondents ' emotional attitude to virtual and real friendship, calculated in the framework of a previously developed nonlinear stochastic model, are presented. The results of the comparative analysis show that in the group as a whole, the difference in the perception of real friendship between the respondents of both cities is small. On average, Grozny residents are a little more positive about real friendship. Students of both studied samples perceive virtual friendship in general more negatively than real friendship. But here the difference in relations is more significant. Subgroups with a positive perception in Grozny are about 10% less. On average, Grozny residents are more negative about virtual friendship than Rostov residents. Most likely, this is due to a difference in mentality.
Keywords: friendship, virtual friendship, affective component of attitudes, semantic differential technology, nonlinear phenomenological model, comparative analysis
The work consists of two parts and is devoted to a comparative analysis of the declared cognitive and actually perceived affective relations to friendship. In the second part, the distribution functions for the entire hierarchical system of factors identified in the first part and reflecting the structure of the cognitive perception of friendship by DSTU students are presented. It was found that the overall cognitive attitude of the group is positive. For two indicators of the second level and the integral factor of all cognitive perception, about 80% of all respondents are characterized by positive values of these indicators. For the third factor of the second level, the subgroup with a positive perception (60%) is also larger than with a negative one (40%), but not so much. The affective component of students ' attitudes towards friendship gives a completely different picture. Here, 57% of respondents are characterized by an almost neutral emotional attitude to it, while only 29% are positive. All this suggests that in the group as a whole, students position a more positive relationship to friendship on a cognitive level than they actually feel emotionally. We associate this with the influence of society (both the immediate environment in direct communication, and through literature, art, mass media, etc.). The paper also analyzes the relationship between cognitive and affective attitudes to friendship at the individual level. In General, there is no such connection for the studied audience, even statistically (the correlation coefficient is only 0.17). But if we divide the entire audience into two subgroups, characterized by both the excess of cognitive perception over affective, and with the opposite ratio, then for them separately there is already a positive statistical relationship.
Keywords: friendship, pilot survey, cognitive component, hierarchical factorization method, distribution functions, affective component, comparative analysis
The work consists of two parts and is devoted to a comparative analysis of the declared cognitive and actually perceived affective relations to friendship. It is based on the results of a pilot survey conducted at DSTU at the end of 2019, in order to comprehensively measure the two components of students ' friendly attitudes. In the first part of the work, the rationale for the need for such complex measurements is given, and the method used to identify the cognitive component that we associate with the declared attitude is briefly shown. The results of the hierarchy of factors that describe various aspects of the structure of the cognitive perception of friendship are presented. It is found that the primary 11 characteristics that were used for the survey in the questionnaire are statistically dependent, and at the next level they are reduced to three indicators: moral relationships in friendship, interpersonal interaction in friendship, and the impact of friendship on life in General. At the higher level, these factors, in turn, are reduced to one integral indicator of the cognitive perception of friendship. The distribution functions by respondents for all these factors are given in the next part of the paper. Where they are used for comparative analysis.
Keywords: friendship, pilot survey, cognitive component, hierarchical factorization method, distribution functions, affective component, comparative analysis
The work is devoted to the development of experimental research technology for the emotional component of students ' attitudes towards friendship. Using a concrete example, it is shown that the previously developed method of measuring the affective component of various social attitudes makes it possible to identify the levels of emotional perception of both real and virtual friendship. It was found that just over half of the studied audience (57-59%) showed an almost neutral emotional attitude to both real and virtual friendships. Only about 29% perceive real friendship positively, and even less – 19% - virtual friendship. On the contrary, virtual friendship is negatively evaluated by 22% , while real friendship is only 14%. Thus, in the group as a whole, the attitude to real friendship is more positive than to virtual one. It is shown that this pattern is observed not only at the group level, but also at the individual level. But in the form of a trend. The results confirm the decrease in the importance of friendship noted in the literature (compared to the last century), and the emerging increase in the role of virtual interpersonal relationships.
Keywords: interpersonal relationships, friendship, virtual friendship, affective component of attitudes, semantic differential technology, nonlinear phenomenological model
The aim of this work is to estimate the density of the electron spectrum of objects with a dispersion bond, such as liquid helium, for example. The interest in its electronic properties is caused by the recently discovered dynamic polarization in the second sound wave, which made the study of its zone structure relevant. In this paper, the objects under study are modeled after born by a linear chain of coupled oscillators. The dispersion bond is considered on the basis of the quasi-classical London approximation, which takes into account the correlations of the oscillating dipole moments of atoms. The first part of the work is preparatory. A brief review of the new experimental data for helium II is given, and the problem statement is formulated. On simple examples (lines of two and three coupled oscillators) the research methodology is worked out. This section is of independent importance for rapid estimates of the density of the electron spectrum in dispersion coupling, and identifies trends in the change of spectrum parameters with an increase in the number of structural units. It is obtained, in particular, that the band width increases and the specific binding energy decreases slightly. In the second part, a long chain of coupled oscillators is investigated on the basis of the developed techniques. The density of the electron spectrum is calculated both for specific chains and in the thermodynamic limit. The results obtained in this work are planned to be used in the future for the development of dynamic polarization models for helium II
Keywords: dispersion forces, helium II, dipole moment, harmonic oscillator, coupled oscillations, normal mode, electron spectrum, density, narrow band, binding energy
The paper presents the results of measuring the overall emotional state of students in Grozny at the beginning of 2016. This characteristic is one of the indicators of social health of the study group, in particular, in relation to the political field. It is based on a pilot survey conducted among 141 students of the Grozny state oil technical University. By gender and national composition, the sample was approximately the same as in the entire educational institution. To measure the affective component of the emotional state, the method of the semantic differential of CH. Osgood was used. The interpretation of the results obtained was based on the Coombs ideal point theory, based on the proximity in the semantic space of the image of a real object from the images of ideal constructs. The distribution functions of the affective level of the emotional state are calculated in a linear approximation, as well as in the framework of the previously developed stochastic nonlinear psychosemantic phenomenological model. It was found that 14 % of respondents are characterized by a neutral emotional state, and 55% - positive. Of these, 33% reported their condition as slightly positive (a level of 0.1 to 0.3 on a scale of -1 to +1), and 22 % reported a steady positive (a level of 0.4 to 1). Negative emotional state was observed in 31 % of the respondents, of which 20 % - slightly negative (level from -0.1 to -0.3), and 11 % - stable negative (level -0.4 and below). The latter are the subgroup of risk in which social and political tensions can develop. The core of this subgroup is formed by 5 % of respondents who showed an extremely negative emotional state, with a level of -1. The results obtained differ slightly from similar data measured among students in Rostov-on-don around the same time period. For students of Grozny, the group of respondents with a positive emotional state is 10% more than for Rostov residents.
Keywords: social attitudes, affective component, semantic differential, Coombs perception theory, linear approximation, distribution function, nonlinear stochastic model, risk group, social tension
The aim of this work is to estimate the density of the electron spectrum of objects with a dispersion bond, such as liquid helium, for example. The interest in its electronic properties is caused by the recently discovered dynamic polarization in the second sound wave, which made the study of its zone structure relevant. In this paper, the objects under study are modeled after born by a linear chain of coupled oscillators. The dispersion bond is considered on the basis of the quasi-classical London approximation, which takes into account the correlations of the oscillating dipole moments of atoms. The first part of the work is preparatory. A brief review of the new experimental data for helium II is given, and the problem statement is formulated. On simple examples (lines of two and three coupled oscillators) the research methodology is worked out. This section is of independent importance for rapid estimates of the density of the electron spectrum in dispersion coupling, and identifies trends in the change of spectrum parameters with an increase in the number of structural units. It is obtained, in particular, that the band width increases and the specific binding energy decreases slightly. In the second part, a long chain of coupled oscillators is investigated on the basis of the developed techniques. The density of the electron spectrum is calculated both for specific chains and in the thermodynamic limit. The results obtained in this work are planned to be used in the future for the development of dynamic polarization models for helium II
Keywords: dispersion forces, helium II, dipole moment, harmonic oscillator, coupled oscillations, normal mode, electron spectrum, density, narrow band, binding energy
The work is based on experimental data obtained during the pilot survey of students of DSTU at the end of 2018. Cognitive components of perception of propaganda were revealed by direct survey, students were asked to characterize the fairness of the policy pursued by the state and the reliability of both Pro-government and opposition political propaganda in General. At the same time, domestic and foreign policies were considered separately. The correlation analysis carried out on these six indicators showed their significant mutual influence. To identify the integral characteristics behind this correlation, we used the method of hierarchy analysis, previously proposed by us such a variety as hierarchical factor analysis. It was found that at the second level, the primary six indicators are reduced to two factors, the indices of perception of missile defense and illegal propaganda. At the third level, the latter two form an integral factor characterizing the cognitive component as a whole. For each level, the priorities of the underlying indicators relative to the upper one are calculated, and the matrices of paired comparisons, both primary characteristics and intermediate ones, are restored. In addition to the internal structure indicators, the paper presents external ones, such as the distribution of the obtained factors of the second and third levels by respondents.
Keywords: perception, propaganda Pro-government, opposition propaganda, questioning, cognitive attitudes, method of analysis of hierarchies, hierarchical factor analysis, indices of perception of Pro and illegal propaganda, integral index, distribution functions
The probabilistic model of perception of concrete propaganda information is presented. Previously, such a model was developed by us for subjects with a neutral attitude to propaganda in General. Now it is generalized to the case of arbitrary relation. In the model, the perception of a particular news is stochastic in nature, and in the limit goes to the levels of complete reliability or complete unreliability. At the same time, there is a connection between the level of global perception of propaganda as a whole and the levels of local perceptions averaged over the entire previous ensemble of specific news . On a concrete example it is shown that the offered model allows to restore for any investigated group dynamics of local perception of concrete information on known functions of distribution of global perception. This information is important to identify the features of perception, depending on the external and internal characteristics of the study group. In addition, the model presented in this article is the basic one. One of its purposes is to serve as a basis for further expansion along the way of taking into account the impact of the social environment. That is supposed to hold in the future.
Keywords: propaganda, perception, in General, individual news, modeling, probabilistic-stochastic approach, discrete-event approximation, Bayesian theory, multi-agent analysis