Zinc electrodeposits gained the distribution generally thanks to high protective properties. However it is possible to apply zinc electroplated coatings and at restoration of worn-out surfaces of details of cars. Thus zinc electrodeposits possess the high durability of coupling with a substrate that is pledge of long-term service of the details restored by zinc. Ensuring high durability of coupling of zinc electroplated coating with a basis possibly only at careful observance of technological process of preliminary preparation of a surface for sedimentation and directly the sedimentation. Some researchers suggest to estimate the received durability of coupling of a covering with a basis from the point of view of the theory of reliability. Technological reliability of process of preparation of details for galvanizing is meant as percent of the restored details, with a high durability of coupling. Process of preparation represents technical system in which operations act as elements. Reliability of technical system are defined by quantity and reliability of elements, their functional communication. And reliability of elements, is defined by technology factors and depends on quality of carrying out the previous operation. Refusal of any of elements causes refusal of all technical system. That is communication between elements of system consecutive and it is possible to apply the second theorem of probabilities according to which the probability of joint emergence of several dependent events is equal to work of probability of one of them on conditional probabilities of all others to it. It is necessary to understand change of reliability of an element in time as stability of reliability. For the purpose of improvement of technological process of galvanizing it is possible to perform operation of anode etching directly in galvanizing electrolyte. Thus the block diagram of preparation of a detail can be submitted as follows: machining; degreasing of surfaces of a detail Vienna lime; washing in cold water; anode etching galvanizing electrolyte; removal of products of etching from the covered surfaces and an exit to the mode; galvanizing.
Keywords: case detail, restoration, repair, defect, resource way of restoration, car repair production
Synthesis of the TiO2 nanoparticles was carried out by sol-gel method. The optimal conditions for stable TiO2 gel obtaining was determined. The resulting samples were studied by IR spectroscopy. Studies have shown the presence of chemically and physically bounded water in TiO2 powders, dried at 125 ° C. Studying of the influence of the pH on the acid-base properties of the surface of the resulting TiO2 powders was performed by indicator method.
Keywords: TiO2 nanoparticles, sol-gel method, acid-base properties, indicator method, infrared spectroscopy, pH of the medium
The study of copper ion (Cu2+) environment in aqueous solution was performed by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray absorption spectra for various concentrations of aqueous solutions of CuCl2 were measured. The testing of near-edge fine structure approach for calculating X-ray absorption Cu K-edge spectra of copper ion (Cu2 +) coordinated complex by finite difference method for solution of Schrödinger equation were held . A model of local environment of copper ion (Cu2 +) in aqueous solutions is proposed.
Keywords: X-ray absorption spectroscopy, 3d-metals ions, aqueous solutions, local environment, finite difference method, coordination complexes
Carrying out anode etching of details directly in working electrolyte of galvanizing will allow to reduce significantly time for preliminary preparation of the restored surface for sedimentation and to increase stability of results on ensuring quality of a covering. Anode etching represents electrochemical processing during which there is a removal of oxidic films, dissolution defective superficial a metal layer, revealing its structure. Thus on an anode surface the slime consisting of etching products is formed and ions of bivalent iron get to electrolyte. At achievement of a certain (critical) value of density of anode current the process of passivating of a surface, that is a surface covering a passive film which is followed by sharp increase of tension and decrease in current begins. There is a rough allocation of the small vials of oxygen clearing slime from an anode surface. The mechanism of anode etching of surfaces of the restored details of cars in sulfate electrolyte of galvanizing is similar to etching in the electrolytes containing sulfate ions that is as a result of process of formation of an oxidic film and parallel electrochemical dissolution by its anions. Quality of electroplated coatings of the restored details of cars zinc is provided with anode etching on necessary depth before emergence of steady passivation and the subsequent covering of a surface a continuous passive film. The mechanism of passivation of a surface of the anode in the electrolytes containing sulfate ions can be described by two theoretical models: 1) passivation is caused by protection of a surface an oxide layer of metal; 2) passivation is caused by special nature of adsorption of ions of oxygen. At achievement of anode density of current of a certain (critical) value, and change of active dissolution of a surface by the steady passivation which is followed by formation of a monomolecular passive film happens an electrode of a certain value of potential.
Keywords: anode etching, passive film, current density, adsorption, passivating, potential
In this article we consider the use of quasi-homogeneous approximation to describe the properties of disperse systems. We used a statistical method of polymer based on the consideration of all possible structures averaged macromolecules of the same weight. The equations to assess many additive parameters of macromolecules containing their systems. Statistical polymer method allows modeling branched, cross-linked macromolecules and containing their system in a state of equilibrium or non-equilibrium state. Fractal consideration of random polymer allows you to s imulate different types of random fractals and other objects studied by the methods of fractal theory. A method of statistical polymer is not only applicable to the polymers but also to composites gels associates in other polar liquids and aggregate systems. In this paper we described the state of colloidal solutions of silica from the viewpoint of statistical physics. This approach is based on the idea consists in the fact that a colloidal solution of silicon dioxide - silica sol consists of a very large number of interacting particles in a continuous motion. It is dedicated to the study of an idealized system of colliding, but not interacting particles sol. Analyzed the behavior of silica sol, in terms of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution was calculated and the mean free path of the colloidal particles. Based on these data, it was calculated the number of particles that can overcome the potential barrier in a collision. For modeling the kinetics of the sol-gel transition, we have discussed various approaches.
Keywords: quasi-homogeneous approximation, disperse systems, statistical polymer method, the formation of cross-links, fractal method, sol, silica sol, sol-gel transition, the mean free path
In order to assess the strength of the bone tissue in patients undergoing joint replacement of the knee or hip joint, resected bone fragments were tested on a test-stand, ИСС/М-Scaime ZF-500, installed at the department of traumatology and orthopedics of the Rostov state medical university. Later, the bone strength indicators were compared to the following: data obtained from densitometry, gender, age and the osteoporosis risk factors of the patient. Based on multivariate analysis, medical treatment and rehabilitation methods were devised for the patients after a joint replacement of the knee or hip joint.
Keywords: osteoporosis, osteopenia, bone strength, knee joint replacement, hip joint replacement, test-stand.
When creating and using of medical systems and devices for various applications, considerable importance is periodic verification and testing of such systems and devices. In addition to checks are also conducted medical and technical tests in setting on the production and commissioning. This article discusses an approach to the construction of optimal calibration systems and devices for testing of medical devices that are used to create and maintain modern medical technology. The most popular and accessible systems from companies such as General Electric Medical Systems IT, Natiоnal Instruments, DIATEST considered in this article. The estimation of the effectiveness of these devices in various stages of development and testing of medical devices. The paper discusses examples of the construction with the use of modern laboratory information environment LabVIEW. The present approach permits to select a sufficiently effective suite for verification and testing of medical devices in the company and for the training of students. Based on the findings made in the article, you can choose the most appropriate complex for initial verification of medical equipment and for periodic calibration.
Keywords: calibration, testing, medical equipment, instrumentation, electrophysiological signals, automation
Failure of communication equipment and automated control systems by the fire of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, leads to a significant reduction in staffing it and, as a consequence of this, to the disruption of assigned tasks. Proposed generalized analysis allows to take into account all the factors affecting the recovery process as a single sample and the communication system and create a conceptual model of the recovery process communication equipment repair bodies of technical communications and automated control systems of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: communication, communication technology and management information systems, technical support communication and control systems, recovery, repair, maintainability.
In this article the optimal use of unique equipment problem solving by means of genetic algorithm is considered. It is shown that the arising task is non-stationary, for its decision the hybrid population and genetic algorithm with adaptation of non-stationary decisions is used. On practice such problem is devided into two tasks: planning the optimal use of unique equipment for one week and direct management problem. Both problems are solved by means jf genetic algotithm.
Keywords: optimal use of unique equipment problem, genetic algorythm, dynamic knapsack problem, non-stationary solutions adaptation
This article discusses some aspects of the balanced allocation of scarce resources, innovative industrial concern among enterprises. The author's solution to this problem on the basis of non-manipulable mechanisms to support decision-making. It is proved that under certain conditions, in particular when not transferable utility, optimal decision-making processes in economic systems must be sought in the class of non-manipulable mechanisms.
Keywords: innovative resources, the concept of a balanced allocation of scarce resources, theory of economy of the active connect, non-manipulable of a mechanisms, transferable utility.
"This paper provides a theoretical understanding of algorithms and data compression archivers created on their basis. Details the calculation of redundancy information, the compression ratio, the amount of information entropy of the text in the selected user's file. Based on Huffman and calculation formulas developed a program in the development environment Delphi «Analysis of the effectiveness of data compression and archiving,"" which allows you to compress the files selected by the user selected output tables archiver with the original and compressed file sizes, as well as to analyze the effectiveness of compression without making itself file compression that allows you to save you time. A randomly selected files are analyzed compression efficiency, the results of the analysis are presented in the form of screenshots from the program. The diagram compression ratio for one of the files."
Keywords: file type, compression, archiver, data redundancy, entropy, algorithm analysis, archive, Huffman
The article describes the slow flying drones with reference to problems of aerial photography. As an alternative to multicopter proposed aerodynamic design, elliptical flying wing. It has been shown that this scheme allows ensure uniform distribution of lifting force along the wing span, respectively, does not allow on loss of unmanned speed bogged down into a tailspin. The results of mathematical modeling and flight test a prototype of this type of UAV.
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; elliptical wing; control laws; mathematic modeling; drone aircraft
This article discusses the concept of information security, its structure and development stages, shows the diversity and the equivalence of the remedies and discusses existing approaches to the formation of protecting corporate systems on the basis of which it was proposed to address this problem, based on the method of decision theory.
Keywords: information security, information security devices, knapsack problem, points of placement of remedies of information security, the formation of information security, distributed systems, mathematical model
In this article the social health of the student youth as a social phenomenon is considered in the context of the theory of structural marginality. The author describes and explains the condition of the marginalized status of the student youth of the South of Russia. Social health of the student youth of the South of Russia is a reflection of the degree of her marginal position in society.
Keywords: "Social health, Russian student youth, structural marginality, status, social value, satisfaction with life, the South of Russia. "
The article discusses the generalized algorithm of processing of weakly formalized information in technical systems on the example of the control of non-equilibrium chemical reaction such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. The reaction occurs in a container placed in a thermostat. By container summed tubes on which the container through the valve receives a reagent solution. The contents of the container is stirred with a mixer. In the container occurs reactions, and the excess solution is drained through the drain. The problem is following. It is necessary valves that regulate the rate of arrival of solutions into the container and stirrer speed adjusted so as to obtain a stable periodic repeating pattern. In the reaction can be seen as a change of color of the solution from red (high concentration of cerium ions with a valence of 3) to blue (high concentration of cerium ions having a valence of 4) and back to the period of a few minutes. In the article described in detail the use of the generalized algorithm to solve of the problem of regulating of valves and mixers in the container.
Keywords: weakly formalized information, information processing, algorithm, non-equilibrium chemical reaction, Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, control
In this article the method of investigation of latent conflict potential student administrative centers of the Federation of South Russia (for example, KCR). It is based on direct empirical data collected at the beginning of 2015 questioning of students of Karachay-Cherkessia State University. Distribution functions of the respondents to assess the cognitive component of the various components of latent conflict potential are provided. All these functions are divided by their sociological meaning of a number of groups: cognitive characteristics of socio-economic security, indicators of loyalty to the authorities (they also evaluate the legitimacy), and a large group of respondents to identify the level of protest. Using a consistent factorization, eventually the entire initial set reduced to three indicators of latent conflict potential: the index of socio-economic expectations indicator of legitimacy, the index of the protest. Distribution functions are provided for these characteristics. To assess the level of overall latent conflict potential is proposed to use a matrix of conflict, showing how the contributions of individual parties and the total effect.
Keywords: latent conflict potential, questioning, cognitive performance, distribution function, factor analysis, indexes, security, legitimacy of the protest, the matrix of latent conflict potential
The article is devoted to the experimental investigation of the influence of load regimes on the spectrum of induction motor current . Spectrogram analysis allows to identify the presence of deterioration and to determine the operating mode of the induction motor. The experimental apparatus described in the paper allows to measure motor current oscillogram and calculate its spectrum. The appratus is based on PIC highspeed microcontroller. For current measuring the Hall sensor ACS712 is used. Several experiments are carried out in the research: without load, with load, with shaft beating imitaion. The analys of collected data has shown that the spectrums has some differences depends on the type of motor load. The research may be used for diagnostic system for inductor motors.
Keywords: Induction motor, current sensor, microcontroller, current spectrum, fast Fourier transform.
The theoretical research of the compositional system consisting of two irregular anisotropic gradient-planar structures was done. The main axes of the dielectric tensor rotated around the y-axis in case of their elements had different spatial distributions. The system of coupled integro-quasidifferential equations for the amplitude coefficients of the interacting modes was achieved taking into account the substitution of the field for the required system by the related set of surface and pseudosurface electric and magnetic waves in mixed spectrum for regular asymmetrical inhomogeneous anisotropic waveguides. Creating this system, we considered the irregular boundary components of structures, as well as anisotropy, heterogeneity, transverse and longitudinal dependence of modal transformation. The solution of this system allowed to trace the transformation of modes with persistence of polarization and took into account the phase relations between the interacting modes and functions of border changing for related structures and their dependence on the parameters of the gradient components of the dielectric transmittivity tensor of waveguide environment. An ability to manage the transformation of modes of the continuous spectrum by changing the parameters and characteristics of compositional simulated media and its non-reciprocity was proved.
Keywords: related irregular compositional structures, the system of coupled integro-quasidifferential equations, pseudosurface electric and magnetic waves, parameters of the gradient components of the dielectric transmittivity tensor.
This article discusses some aspects of the development of logical and conceptual model for decision-making in the theory of the economy of the active connect.The article offers author's solution to this problem on the basis of the extreme values of Choque integral. It is proved that under certain conditions, in particular when not transferable utility, optimal decision-making procedures for the balanced allocation of scarce resources in economic systems must be sought in the class of information and cognitive technologies included in the list of critical technologies of modern Russia.
Keywords: innovative resources, theory of the economy of the active connect, the Choque integral, the concept of a balanced allocation of scarce innovation resources
"Often in decision-making objective functions are not represented in the form of explicit functional dependencies on the set of valid alternatives (objects), and is given preference relation on this set, ie it is possible only pairwise comparisons of objects. This raises the problem of selecting a subset of the original set, elements of which are said to be preferred, or select multiple subsets (classes) with further ordering. In this paper we consider the principle of ""rough"" ranking, which consists in the selection of classes of objects and their linear ordering for the case when the original relation is linear and non-transitive It is proposed a method of forming a dynamic classes in solving the problem ""rough"" ranking. It is based on the introduction of the interval representation of a Boolean matrix."
Keywords: diversification of management, production diversification, financial and economic purposes of a diversification, technological purposes of ensuring flexibility of production
Experimental studies of the ignition system to the load operation of the motor. With the help of current and voltage sensors made visualization, transformation and analysis of information about the characteristics of energy spark discharge in the cylinder at different operation modes. Produced by processing waveform is shown that with increasing rotation speed of motor is decreasing the duration of the spark discharge with an increase in the energy released in the electrode gap of the spark plug. With increasing rotation speed the release of energy takes place in a shorter period of time due to increased voltage; increasing the amount of energy by reducing the value of the breakdown voltage. However, these relationships are non-linear. On the mode of maximum torque and power discharge duration increased.
Keywords: ignition system, spark, spark ignition, ignition coil, motor, electrical equipment, ignition sparkplugs
Simultaneous detection of obstacles in the near field of the mobile robot is extremely urgent and complex task. In general, environment around robot is very complicated due to differences in change of lighting conditions and viewing angles. These problems lead to decrease accuracy of obstacles recognition. They can change quickly. However, obstacles must occupy a certain region in space. In this paper, we propose algorithms for obstacle detection with algorithm "3D-point cloud". Algorithm contains some main steps: Creation 3D-point cloud, transformation «2D- Point Cloud», obtaining results. Obstacles are detected based on their specific areas. 3D-point cloud are obtained from the depth data. Using 3D-point clouds allows satisfying requirements for obstacle detection in real time. The experimental results show the effectiveness of proposed approach using in vision system of a mobile robot platform
Keywords: 3D-point cloud, 2D point cloud, obstacle, mobile robot, image recognition, depth image, Kinect, downsampling algorithm, clustering algorithm, k-mean clustering, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise