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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • Trends in the development of digital technologies in the organization of construction production

    The article provides an overview of the applied digital technologies in construction, the problems of their development.

    Keywords: digital technologies, BIM model, 3D printing of buildings, construction production, estimate, 3D scanning

  • Physical and mathematical sciences. Physics

  • The physical basis for determining the complex wavenumber for electromagnetic waves propagating through a layer of carbon fiber

    The conclusion of the relations for the study of the propagation or diffraction of electromagnetic waves in the semiconductor layers of composite materials, which are also recommended to be used in the creation of onboard antennas and microwave devices with less weight. Both exact and simplified mathematical expressions for the rapid quantitative estimation of the complex wave number are obtained. Using the example of carbon fiber plastics with high conductivity, it is shown that their use makes it possible to create waveguide paths and antenna reflectors up to a millimeter wavelength range.

    Keywords: carbon fiber, electrodynamics, composite, propagation, absorption, antenna

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Features of the development of transport corridors in the space of the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union

    The article discusses the features of international transport corridors passing through the territory of the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, analyzes the potential and problems of their development, identifies their prospects for the implementation of large transport and logistics projects. Despite the great attention of scientists from different countries to the issues under study, the issues of the functioning of international transport corridors and their integration into the global transport system require further study.

    Keywords: logistics, logistics directions, transport corridors, Eurasian Economic Union, transport routes

  • Development of a combined heat source with an external chamber and an intermediate circuit on carbon dioxide

    The paper proposes and calculates a scheme of a two-stage gas turbine plant using carbon dioxide as a working fluid in the second stage and using heating of the CO2 circuit, as well as heating water sent for heating. As a result, the following were calculated: for the first stage turbine: parameters of fuel combustion products; air compressor parameters; fuel compressor parameters; combustion chamber parameters for a real Brayton cycle; Efficiency of the first stage turbine; for the second stage of the gas turbine: a schematic diagram was drawn up using liquid CO2 as a working fluid; calculation of CO2 parameters at key points of the Brayton cycle; the efficiency of the turbine of the second stage is calculated.

    Keywords: energy efficiency, gas turbine plant, carbon dioxide, pressure, pressure ratio, combustion chamber, recuperator

  • Nonlinear Magnet Shielding Coefficient Meter

    The article describes a device designed to measure the shielding coefficient of a magnetic field in the near zone and its dependence on the frequency of changes in the magnetic field. The screening coefficient is measured taking into account the nonlinearity of the characteristics of the material from which the magnetic screen is made. The test action generation module sets the current flowing through the coil containing a superposition of DC and AC signals. The presence of a constant component in the test exposure makes it possible to compensate for an external constant or slowly changing magnetic field and thereby reduce the error in determining the shielding coefficient. The results of measuring the frequency dependence of the magnetic field shielding coefficient in the near zone, as well as the main characteristics of the created device are presented.

    Keywords: screening coefficient, nonlinear magnetometer, screening coefficient meter, magnetometry, digital attenuator, hall magnetometer, magnetic field compensation

  • On the issue of using components from Android Architecture Components in a mobile application on the Android platform

    Mobile applications are widely used by many people in everyday tasks. Every year there is an increasing need for more functional, convenient and reliable software tools that can provide fast and safe work in various fields. But to develop such an application, it is necessary to use an architecture that meets all the requirements. In this paper, we will talk about the use of components from Android Architecture Components developed by Google, which allow you to implement some design patterns taking into account the features of the Android operating system. The article will provide a list of the most used components, as well as a brief reference on their functionality. The work of one of the components with the basic elements of the Android operating system is considered. The interaction of components is also schematically shown by the example of the implementation of one of the design patterns.

    Keywords: application architecture, Android Architecture Components, application, android

  • Research of the fog effect on machine vision systems

    In this work, we studied the effect of fog on machine vision systems, in particular, on the correctness of the pattern recognition algorithm. As part of this work, a filter is implemented that eliminates distortions caused by fog. A corrective filter has been developed, an analysis of the operation of a neural network with images of various definitions has been carried out, on the basis of which recommendations have been made to improve the accuracy of pattern recognition.

    Keywords: image processing, image filtering, machine vision systems, pattern recognition

  • Existing approaches to automating the process of drying materials in the fluidized bed mode

    The presented paper provides an overview of approaches to automation of the drying process in the fluidized bed mode. The technological process of drying potassium chloride in a fluidized bed apparatus at a potash plant is considered as an object of control. During the analysis of the control object, it was noted that, according to the generalized opinion of the technical staff of the production in question, standard control algorithms (PID controllers) are not effective enough in the task of automatic control of the thermal regime of the potassium chloride drying process. The control of the thermal regime in the production under consideration is carried out by the operational personnel in manual mode, by manipulating the flow rate of the drying agent. The need to simultaneously solve and take into account many different kinds of process control tasks in the drying compartment leads to the fact that the operator is physically unable to constantly ensure accurate maintenance of the thermal drying regime in accordance with the regulations in conditions of fluctuations in the consumption of wet crystallized, which reduces the quality of the drying process control and leads to overspending of fuel gas. Analysis of the conditions and results of the operation of the production in question showed that standard algorithms are not able to provide the required quality of process control. The use of more advanced methods and algorithms of automatic control is required. A review of literature sources shows that the solution to the existing problem can be found based on the use of algorithms that meet intelligent automatic control systems. One of the modern approaches to automation of complex, informationally weakly deterministic technological processes is the intellectualization of the control system. Intelligent control algorithms are considered to be built on the basis of models for the representation of expert knowledge. Such algorithms are able to maintain operability in conditions of non-stationarity of process variables and incompleteness of the observed information about its state." "The presented paper provides an overview of approaches to automation of the drying process in the fluidized bed mode. The technological process of drying potassium chloride in a fluidized bed apparatus at a potash plant is considered as an object of control. During the analysis of the control object, it was noted that, according to the generalized opinion of the technical staff of the production in question, standard control algorithms (PID controllers) are not effective enough in the task of automatic control of the thermal regime of the potassium chloride drying process. The control of the thermal regime in the production under consideration is carried out by the operational personnel in manual mode, by manipulating the flow rate of the drying agent. The need to simultaneously solve and take into account many different kinds of process control tasks in the drying compartment leads to the fact that the operator is physically unable to constantly ensure accurate maintenance of the thermal drying regime in accordance with the regulations in conditions of fluctuations in the consumption of wet crystallized, which reduces the quality of the drying process control and leads to overspending of fuel gas. Analysis of the conditions and results of the operation of the production in question showed that standard algorithms are not able to provide the required quality of process control. The use of more advanced methods and algorithms of automatic control is required. A review of literature sources shows that the solution to the existing problem can be found based on the use of algorithms that meet intelligent automatic control systems. One of the modern approaches to automation of complex, informationally weakly deterministic technological processes is the intellectualization of the control system. Intelligent control algorithms are considered to be built on the basis of models for the representation of expert knowledge. Such algorithms are able to maintain operability in conditions of non-stationarity of process variables and incompleteness of the observed information about its state.

    Keywords: fluidized bed drying, potassium chloride, control, process automation, PID, intelligent control algorithmsfluidized bed drying, potassium chloride, control, process automation, PID, intelligent control algorithms

  • Woven sensor systems for wearable wireless networks

    A comparative analysis of the possibilities of using woven composite materials with specified sensory properties as information and measurement systems of the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is presented. It is proposed to consider such woven sensor systems as a basis for building a network interaction environment for components of wireless wearable sensor networks, as well as systems for monitoring the stress-strain state of products made of woven composite materials. To impart sensory qualities to such multilayer 3D fabrics at the stage of their development, it is proposed to modify their structure by introducing threads, on the one hand, having the properties necessary for the formation of data transmission channels, and on the other, being piezoelectric sensors, whose signals allow monitoring the dynamics of changes in the stress-strain state of a woven composite material.The release of a functionally augmented 3D fabric in this way opens up real prospects for conducting a full-scale experiment to study the sensory properties of spatially extended products made of woven composite materials.

    Keywords: Wireless Body Area Networks, fabric sensors, textile sensors, Sensor Networks, E-textiles, Smart fabrics, woven composite materials, sensor data acquisition, Internet of Things

  • Developing a machine learning model for estimating driver eye condition

    Currently, special attention is paid to artificial intelligence systems in transport. One of the actual directions is the development of self-driving car. However, there is also an intermediate approach. When the control is not fully automatic and automated. In such systems a human plays an important role, but the system, analyzing data from the environment, allows to form various kinds of recommendations. Moreover, such systems allow to work on the warning in some situations. In particular, some driver monitoring systems allow to detect the fact of smoking while driving, turning your eyes away from the road. In this article, special attention is paid to the system of analysis of the driver's eyes. First of all, the results of such analysis can be used to determine the fact of falling asleep. However, by analyzing, the frequency of blinks, it is possible to predict sleep. Nevertheless, computing power is needed to build such a system. In this work, the performance is achieved by using Haar cascades and the Viola-Jones method in eye detection. The eyes detected in the video are images of a much smaller size compared to the whole frame of the video sequence, due to which high performance is achieved in their processing by the convolutional network in the next step. Structurally, the system consists of two neural networks operating in parallel for the left and right eyes. The obtained values of completeness are about 90%.

    Keywords: computer vision, artificial intelligence, security system, face detector, deep learning, target skipping, proportion of correct recognition, driver monitoring, eye recognition, Viola-Jones method, Haar cascades, optimization

  • Mathematical model of queuing system management with dynamic application service discipline

    In the work, using the queuing theory apparatus, a mathematical model for managing the reliability of software and special-purpose computer networks used in the system of ensuring the integrated security of institutions and UIS bodies is constructed. Computer networks and software can be considered as a managed queuing system in which management is carried out by managing the discipline of servicing applications and its structure, changing the intensity of queue servicing, introducing control actions on the flow of applications or in another way. The paper for the first time proposes an approach according to which the optimization problem of the controlled queuing system under consideration with a dynamic discipline of application service is formulated as an optimal control problem with phase constraints and can be solved using numerical algorithms.

    Keywords: special purpose software, controlled queuing system, Euler scheme, optimal control, rapid automatic differentiation method

  • Classifying and countering phishing attacks

    The article discusses the concept of phishing and its varieties. An analysis of phishing attacks for 2021 was carried out, which revealed an increase in their number, which indicates the relevance of the proposed measures to counter this type of threats, a browser extension was developed to ensure protection against mass and directed phishing attacks.

    Keywords: phishing, attack, social engineering, Phishing-as-a-Service, information security

  • Neural network approach to determining human emotions by speech

    From the point of view of practical value, the definition of emotions in a person's voice can be applied in various areas related to both the transmission of audio messages and online communication: such areas include medicine, security, economics, education, etc. As a striking example, we can provide an assessment of the quality of work of call-center operators, as well as the services / goods they offer. So the presence of signals that the client is experiencing negative emotions, for example, anger, can indicate possible problems with the operators. In this paper, a neural network approach will be considered for automatically determining a person's emotions from his speech.

    Keywords: neural network, emotion detection, speech, classification, deep learning, convolutional model

  • On the variant of formalization of the task of determining the demand for training areas and possible areas of employment of graduates based on semantic analysis of job descriptions

    The article considers a variant of formalization of the task of determining the demand for training areas and possible areas of employment of graduates by comparing the skills obtained in the framework of training and the requirements of the labor market on the basis of semantic analysis of job descriptions. The formalized model is used for further algorithmization of the solution and software implementation within the module of the complex tools of remote career guidance.

    Keywords: API requests, vacancies, demand for training areas, career guidance, digitalization of career guidance activities, formalized model

  • Technical science. Building and architecture

  • Improving the stability of the roadbed

    During the construction, overhaul and reconstruction of highways, various transport and technical and hydraulic structures, timely and effective drainage of ground water through the use of high-quality drainage systems is of paramount importance. It is well known that the main cause of deformation and destruction of the roadbed is both surface and ground water. It is necessary to ensure good filtration capacity, high water permeability, strength characteristics and reliability of the drainage system, thereby increasing the bearing capacity of the roadbed throughout the life cycle of the structure used. The authors of this article decided to set up an experimental section of the drainage system in the summer, during the period when the UGV is the lowest. A trench with the lowest permissible slope of water intake pipes is arranged primarily, depending on their diameter, they should be in the range from 0.001 (at d = 500 mm) to 0.007 (at d = 150 mm) and a depth of 40 cm below the UPG. The width of the trench is 45-50 cm larger than the diameter of the pipe. The bottom of the trench is leveled and compacted. After the trench is installed, a leveling layer of sand with a filtering capacity of at least 5 m / day is laid into it. and a thickness depending on the type of soil (loamy 15 cm, clay at least 20 cm), which is covered with a geotextile cloth so that the edges come out of the ditch with a sufficient margin for subsequent closure of the structure. The horizontal tubular drainage system should include inspection, drop-in and receiving wells. At the bottom of the trench, already with the geotextile laid, crushed stone of a fraction of 10-20 mm is filled in, with a layer thickness of 30 – 40 cm. Then the laying of drainage pipes begins, from the drainage well, in compliance with the slope. The next step in the installation of drainage pipes will be filling them with a layer of crushed stone, about 20 cm thick, and its subsequent sealing. After that, the structure is wrapped with geotextile cloths located on the surface with minimal overlap on each other, securing the joints with a rope or thin wire to prevent disclosure. The remaining part of the trench is filled with local soil with its layer-by-layer compaction.

    Keywords: pipe filter, drainage system, non-woven geotextile, drainage pipe, filtration, water permeability, surface density, life cycle of the structure, ring stiffness

  • Expanded fiber gypsum material

    The article considers the relevance of the use of nanomodified concrete in construction. The compositions of the studied mixtures are given, as well as the methods of their preparation using ultrasonic dispersion, the results of the experiment on the destructive effect of standard samples of beams are obtained. The conclusions of the obtained experimental data are presented.

    Keywords: concrete, foam concrete, carbon nanotubes, superplasticizer, dispersion

  • Improving the structuring and interconnection of works on the creation of linear objects based on complex flows

    The article shows the procedure for structuring work on the creation or repair of linear objects on the example of highways. It is proposed to carry out the effective interconnection of works on the basis of improving the theory of complex flows. The formation of object flows is proposed, for this the entire length of a linear object is divided into separate sections, for which object schedules are developed. Object schedules are linked into a single complex flow. The results of calculations for combining object schedules according to various principles and their variant analysis to select the best variant are presented.

    Keywords: linear objects , construction works, object schedules , single flow , work structuring, variant analysis

  • Composite materials used in the field of restoring the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete poles of power lines

    The main objects in the field of inspection and strengthening of reinforced concrete structures are the bearing elements of buildings and structures, however, a huge number of structures subject to the destructive effects of negative factors are reinforced concrete power transmission line poles and lighting poles. Due to the large margin of safety, often their damage is not critical and repair and restoration work is not carried out until the final loss of the bearing capacity of the structures. This state of affairs is a consequence of the significant labor intensity and cost of strengthening work, especially for power transmission towers located far from cities. Modern reinforcement methods based on the use of composite materials allow solving this problem without significant labor costs. These methods do not require laborious and time-consuming costs, which will allow you to quickly respond to the devastating consequences of negative factors that destroy power transmission line supports and lighting poles. This article discusses the existing methods for strengthening reinforced concrete supports of power transmission lines, identifies their shortcomings and proposes new methods based on the use of composite materials.

    Keywords: concrete, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, carbon fiber, composite material, rebar, carbon fabric, supports

  • Investigation of the properties of aggregates from rocks for the production of decorative concrete

    A study was made of aggregates used for the production of decorative concretes. Since slabs of these concretes are planned to be used for floors and platforms that are subject to high mechanical stress, aggregates must have the necessary properties. The resistance of crushed stone to impact on a copra, abrasion in a shelf drum and frost resistance were studied. For sands used as aggregates, such characteristics as granulometric composition, particle size modulus, stability of the stabilized mixture, etc. were determined. According to the results obtained, aggregate samples were determined that are most suitable for the production of decorative concrete, which are used for the installation of decorative floors and platforms.

    Keywords: wear-resistant materials, decorative effect, size modulus, crushed sand, crushed stone

  • Prediction of the resistance of steel fiber concrete to thermal effects at various parameters of dispersed reinforcement

    The article presents the results of computational studies that are part of the authors' comprehensive research on the development of a methodology for predicting the resistance of steel fiber concrete to thermal effects at NPP facilities with various parameters of dispersed reinforcement. The studies were carried out using selected models to describe the processes of thermal deformations and changes in the most important properties of steel fiber based on previously obtained experimental and calculated data on thermal changes of steel fiber on an optimized cement-sand matrix with five types of steel fiber with a volume content of 0.5% to 6% after heating at 110-1100 oC. Based on calculations in accordance with the accepted hypothesis and the selected models, the dependences of thermal changes in the properties of steel fiber concrete relative to matrix changes from the calculated changes in linear dimensions due to the formation of cracks in the fiber concrete are established. The dependences of thermal changes in the linear dimensions of steel fiber concrete due to the formation of cracks on the ratio of the calculated unreliaxed tensile structural stresses in the matrix to the tensile strength of the matrix are established. Based on the performed studies, a method for predicting thermal deformations, changes in mass, linear dimensions due to the formation of cracks, strength, water resistance of steel fiber concrete, based on thermal deformations and changes in the properties of the matrix, parameters of dispersed reinforcement is formulated.

    Keywords: steel fiber concrete, prediction of resistance to thermal effects, cracking, thermal changes in linear dimensions and properties

  • Optimization of winter road construction technologies

    Winter roads are winter roads that are temporary in nature and their construction takes place directly from the snow cover. Complex construction of roads with the use of optimizations created for temporary and economic efficiency, improving the quality of the final result, will increase the effectiveness of decisions made during the construction of winter roads. Improving the efficiency of detailed factors in the construction of winter roads, which affect the result of further work of calendar construction, will allow for faster delivery of materials, personnel and equipment to hard-to-reach objects, within the conditions of the Far North. Winter roads are the most profitable solutions in tundra conditions, since the method of using air transport to deliver materials, equipment and workers is economically unprofitable and less safe. Therefore, the timely construction of winter roads is so important for remote regions.

    Keywords: highway, road, construction, winter construction, winter truck, "Polar elephant", road construction, seasonal construction, optimization, efficiency