"This article discusses the process of salt formation in the development of oil fields. The relationship of the hydrogeological environment with oil deposits, as well as the influence of hydrogeological conditions on them. The influence of the hydrogeological properties of oil fields, which affect the formation of salts directly during the development of an oil field, is considered. The article presents the problems of the formation of salt deposits, the main salts that are most often found by industrial oil workers in the development of oil fields.Oil companies are constantly spending tremendous amounts of money on salt deposits. Modern industrial oil companies use mechanical, chemical methods of salt control and use inhibitors to prevent their formation. Using these methods is effective, but quite costly. In order to prevent the occurrence of salts, a cheaper method is modeling. And also such a method can prepare specialists in advance for a future problem with deposits. From what it can become clear which funds should be involved in the fight against these deposits"
Keywords: shelf, salt deposition, oil field, nucleation, temperature, pressure, solubility, oil, natural gas, produced water
The paper deals with virtual-optic image processing, particularly – with contrast enhancement, specifically – with control of color saturation contrasts in order to detect latent graphic information. The theorem of a hue invariance at color saturation through RGB-coordinates shift and its brightness restoration through RGB-coordinates proportional variation is proved. Meeting the corresponding requirements for analytical software tools, the original algorithm and program to enhance saturation contrasts were developed. The truncated brightness equation is presented. The possibility to optimize the speed versus accuracy of the conversion is laid. The program was successfully approved: a significant increase in the information content of the image was recorded. The efficiency of the created software product application to expert problems is demonstrated.
Keywords: graphic information, color saturation, saturation contrast, contrast control, algorithm and program, latent images, expert applications
The theoretical aspects of crystallization of multicomponent solid solutions are discussed. Antimonoid heterosystems in which bismuth is present are considered, a component that largely determines the photoelectric properties of the studied materials. The features of establishing the equilibrium of the liquid and solid phases in the process of crystallization of these systems are considered. The laws of the thermodynamic behavior of heterosystems in the conditions of gradient liquid-phase epitaxy are established. The results of experimental studies on the growth of solid solutions of multicomponent bismuthides on InSb substrates are presented.
Keywords: solid solutions, migrating liquid phase, indium antimonide arsenide, gallium bismuthide, binary pair, recrystallization, quasicrystalline structure
The article introduces the definition of a robot, its intuition and insights, proposes decision-making algorithms for an emotional robot with non-absolute memory, based on the introduced definitions. It is noted that in order to verify the correctness of the robot making decisions using intuition or insights, a logical or experimental verification of the adequacy of the decisions is necessary. The article introduces the definition of robot hypnosis and the definition of a hypnotist robot, as well as the determination of the suggestibility coefficients of a robot; mathematical models and the algorithm of the hypnotic state of robots based on the mathematical theory of emotional robots are given; ways to ensure the safety of robots for humans and personal devotion of the robot to a particular person are proposed. Both methods are based on the proposed hypnosis models.
Keywords: robot; emotions mathematical models; Artificial Intelligence; intuition; insight, hypnosis
The study of the internal friction of electrolytic coatings is complicated by the impossibility of obtaining sufficiently massive samples and testing them independently of the substrate, and therefore it is necessary to evaluate the stress state of the sample-coating system. The aim of the work was to find a relationship between the internal stresses arising in the coating deposited on a circular cross-section specimen during internal friction tests using a torsion pendulum. During the analysis of the stress-strain state of the bimallic sample, expressions were found to calculate the maximum and minimum stresses in the electrolytic coating. The mutual influence of the coating material and the substrate was evaluated numerically using the Comsol Multiphysics program.
Keywords: internal friction, internal stresses, torsion pendulum, beam rotation, electrolytic coatings
The mathematical model of coordination of private and public interests in the implementation of innovations in the case of multiple agents is studied. It takes into account the presence of two management levels, which are a supervisor and several agents. The relationship between the supervisor and the agents is based on a hierarchy in accordance with the information regulations of Stackelberg games. The incentive method is used as a method of hierarchical management. Algorithms for constructing equilibria for different information regulations are specified. The numerical implementation of the proposed algorithms is based on simulation. The analysis of the obtained results is given.
Keywords: Stackelberg game, Stackelberg game with feedback, hierarchy, simulation, innovation, motivation, supervisor, agents
Using the concept of the model-based design, this article considers the stages of generating the C-code of the engine control algorithm using the Embedded Coder and STM32 Embedded Target tools for Matlab/Simulink. For the example of the chosen stm32 microcontroller, its peripherals will be initialized and connected to the graphical model of the algorithm. In addition, a description of all the blocks and their functions of the resulting model is provided. At the last stage, the C code is generated, ready for loading it into the microcontroller and further controlling the motor as part of the electric drive.
Keywords: Model-based design, Matlab/Simulink, STM32, the control algorithm, STM32 Embedded Target, Embedded Coder
The article deals with the issue of automation of technological production of dispersed materials. The mathematical model of dry charge dosing is described. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) method is proposed for the analysis of acoustic emission signals. The conclusion is made about the economic aspect of production and the accuracy of dosing fractions.
Keywords: automation of production, technology, dispersion composition, the method of fast Fourier transform
High-tech software has firmly entered the work of the design and construction complex of Russia, which allows you to create a single digital information model of the object. Awareness of the importance of using BIM - technologies to overcome the problems of their implementation is a paramount task today. The presented analysis of the situation at micro-enterprises, small, medium and large enterprises of the design and construction industry of the city of Tyumen and the Tyumen region allows us to pay attention to the pressing problems of implementing BIM-technologies today. BIM - technologies are innovative in the construction business, and we are very enthusiastic about them, considering that they are the future of the design and construction industry.
Keywords: awareness of the importavce of using BIM - technologies, a single digital information model of the object, the life cycle of an object, software products, software subscription, process management
Many organizations in the process turn to services related to the delivery of different categories of cargo. Transport logistics is responsible for the process of moving the required amount of cargo to a given point using the optimal route. At the same time, there is often an additional restriction - the delivery of cargo to a given point should be carried out strictly during a certain time interval. The presence of time restrictions lead to the fact that the routes formed without their consideration are not permissible. This article considers developing a solution of the planning and optimizing routes problem with time constraints.
Keywords: route, route planning, route optimization, time constraints, vehicle route problem
The article proposes a model of a qualitative environmental assessment of the building's life cycle in the form of a three-dimensional matrix depending on the construction phase, resources used and criteria for sustainable construction. The concept of deconstruction, which includes the basic principles of sustainable construction, is considered. It is concluded that with the help of information modeling, it is possible to design alternative options for buildings with expired life and to carry out more effective management of the building life cycle based on the proposed model of qualitative environmental assessment.
Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM), principles of sustainable construction, environmental life cycle assessment, deconstruction
The article considers examples of cities with a linear-elongated configuration. Issues of air pollution are considered, examples of components of pollutants coming from stationary and mobile sources are given. Statistical data on human diseases in the Volgograd region for the period 2008-2017 are presented. Considers the issues of monitoring for the city of Volgograd.
Keywords: linear city, highway, pollution, carbon monoxide, monitoring, monitoring posts, disease statistics, combined action, vehicles, noise, gas pollution, health, exhaust gases, length
In this work, we simulated the graphene-MnO composite structure based on minimizing the electron density functional. The analysis of the processes of rearrangement of the interface surface SLG (monolayer of graphene) - MnО (111). In this case, the interface was subjected to hydrogenation. The distribution of the effective charge on graphene is investigated. A decrease in the work function of the charge carriers during hydrogenation of the interface is established.
Keywords: effective charge, graphene, passivated surface, density functional, interface, work function, energy gap, band structure
The article discusses the regulatory framework for the construction of houses for the disabled and the elderly. The main types of documents that are the main component of the regulatory framework are given. Excerpts and the main provisions of the current regulations on the presentation of requirements for sites, space-planning decisions, engineering equipment and adaptation of the environment for the elderly and disabled are considered. The compliance of the requirements with modern standards is analyzed.
Keywords: regulatory framework, construction, construction rules, homes for the elderly and disabled, codes of practice, adaptation of the environment
A method for increasing the production efficiency of ultra-lightweight refractory products is proposed, by optimizing the technology for preparing foam, which allows to release the products from the forms immediately after they are installed for drying. The plastic-viscous characteristics and stability of the foam can be increased by its mineralization, i.e. by introducing fine mineral substances into the foam-forming solution
Keywords: foam mass, mineralization, ultimate shear stress, plastic-viscous characteristics, ultra-light refractories, aluminum-potassium alum
This article discusses the possibility of using water wells for water supply of rice irrigation systems. The aim of the study of this work is to study the prospects for the possible use of water wells for irrigation of flood fields of the Krasnodar Territory. This issue has been studied by the example of a water well, which is located in the village of the Black Sea Seversky district of the Krasnodar Territory. The relevance of the study of this issue is expressed in the fact that of all types of agricultural nature management in the Krasnodar Territory, one of the most important types is rice growing. Naturally, in the field of rice production, irrigation sources play an important role, which, in our opinion, include water wells. The relevance of this study is associated with the importance of the production of rice groats, as one of the most important types of agricultural nature management in the Krasnodar Territory and the Republic of Adygea. Irrigation sources are of great importance in the field of rice growing, which consists in the fact that for the irrigation of flood fields, a large amount of water is required, providing a favorable environment for rice growth. At the same time, the quality of rice cultivated directly depends on the qualitative characteristics of the water resources used for rice systems. The value of irrigation sources is that a favorable environment for the cultivation of rice groats is created by water resources, which are used in large quantities for irrigation of rice fields. Water resources used for irrigation of flood fields have a direct impact on the quality of rice cereal, which is grown on irrigated fields. In this regard, there is a need to conduct a study of water resources extracted from water wells for their compliance with sanitary norms and rules, the results of which will be considered in this paper.
Keywords: siltation, reservoir, water resources, floodplain territories, rational water use, water resources
This article presents the development of pedestrian spaces in cities. It is about the methods of pre-design studies and an integrated approach to design. It is about the meaning and role of pedestrian streets in the enrichment of urban space.
Keywords: street, reconstruction, planning, urban planning, improvement
The article provides a brief overview of geomechanical methods for studying the stress-strain state of the soil mass and tunnel lining. The organization of monitoring in tunnels using conventional and fiber-optic systems is considered. Criteria for analysis of monitoring data and structural strength conditions are described
Keywords: railway tunnel, construction, operation, monitoring, strain gauge, stress, strain, strength, bearing capacity
The results of the development of a polymer protective coating based on oligopiperylene styrene binder for the protection of concrete and metal surfaces of structures of buildings and structures from the effects of adverse natural and technogenic factors are presented. Modification of this binder with tetraethoxysilane in an amount of 3-20 wt. including allows you to get a protective coating with good hydrophobic properties. Introduction to the composition of 1-12 wt. including tetraisopropyl titanate significantly improves the adhesive and strength properties of the protective coating, which is associated with the formation of bonds between oligopiperylene styrene and tetraisopropyl titanate, due to chemical interaction between the reactive groups of these compounds. The developed protective polymer coating provides good adhesion to the working surface, is easy to apply technologically, the curing of the coating occurs at room temperature, and the improvement of the strength and hydrophobic characteristics of the coating will significantly expand its field of application.
Keywords: protective coating, oligopiperylene styrene binder, tetraethoxysilane, tetraisopropyl titanate, adhesion, hydrophobicity, contact angle
This article is devoted to the study of a medieval temple Dating from the end of the X - beginning of the XI century, located near the village of datuna in the Republic of Dagestan. It discusses its design features, provides arguments about their possible purpose and symbolic load. Stylistic and semantic analysis is carried out, as a result of which conclusions are drawn about the ownership of construction traditions. The proportions of the temple underlying the compositional structure are analyzed. Based on the revealed proportions, an analogy is drawn with the temple of Solomon, with which other common features are found. As a result, it is concluded that it served as a prototype for the construction of the Dagestan temple.
Keywords: Datun temple, middle ages, religious architecture, Dagestan, proportions, single-nave Basilica, compositional structure, prototype
The calculation of a multi-storey monolithic building of a wall structural scheme for resistance to progressive collapse is considered. Calculations of the building were made for various operating conditions: normal and extreme (emergency impact — destruction of part of the load-bearing walls of the first floor). Recommendations are given for building protection in case of emergency impacts. It is determined that for buildings with a cross-wall system, the appropriate method of protection against progressive collapse is the method of reserving the strength of load-bearing elements. The increase in the cost of materials is about 2 %. Comparison of technical and economic indicators of buildings of wall and frame structural schemes showed that the cost of protection from progressive collapse of buildings with a wall structural scheme is significantly lower than that of frame
Keywords: progressive collapse, emergency impact, strength reservation, cross-wall design scheme, Lira-SAPR, building design model