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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • Construction control in the project of work production

    This article is devoted to the problems associated with the development, control and execution of one of the most important sections of the project documentation, namely, the project of work production. The authors reveal the problem of non-consistency of the data available in the regulatory documentation regulating the provisions for the development and control of the project of work production. The article presents a brief chronology for the last period on the state of the regulatory framework, methodological guidelines and current regulations for the development of sections of the project of work production. The authors of the article show the features of individual regulatory documents, and their relationship in terms of the development and control of the project of work. The materials contained in the article will help to provide a better understanding of construction participants, designers, construction control specialists and performers of work on the construction site of the purpose and role of the sections of the work production project.

    Keywords: Technical supervision, construction control, control and supervisory activities, construction production technology, construction organization, work production project, construction organization project

  • Diagrid system review as constuctions made of rods mesh

    The article provides a brief overview of the creation of the Diagrid system, describes the concept of forming this structure, its key elements and their role in creating geometrically immutable integral structures. The main directions of application in construction and the peculiarities of work on vertical and horizontal force effects are given. It also provides an overview of the materials of construction used and the main design constraints. This article will be useful for design engineers and architects engaged in the design and calculation of high-rise buildings, as well as buildings with a complex architectural form made of reinforced concrete and metal structures.

    Keywords: diagrid, mesh supporting structures, reinforced concrete structures, metal structures, stability, free architectural form

  • Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of transformation of objects of the property complex in managing the development of the city territory

    The relevance of the research topic is due to the problem of choosing options for converting property complex objects for the purpose of sustainable development of the city territory. The main task currently being solved at the state level is aimed at developing urban planning documents for the strategic development of urban territories. The developed documents have a positive impact on stimulating the development of a modern urban economy, high-quality territorial planning, lifting infrastructure restrictions in cities, and creating "smart territories" that are distinguished primarily by an effective management system and taking into account the opinions of the main stakeholders related to this territory. In this regard, there is a need to develop criteria to assess the prospects for the development of the territory of the municipality, taking into account its specific features and limitations. The purpose of the research is to create a simple, consistent system of criteria that is convenient for use in working with various objects of the property complex. To do this, first of all, it is necessary to identify the factors that affect the efficiency of the use of the property complex and the relationships between them, which will allow us to explore various options for the development of the property complex based on scenario modeling. The results of the study can be used to improve the efficiency of urban management, ensure sustainable development of the territory of the municipality, and improve the quality of life of the population.

    Keywords: management of the territory, the object of the property complex, performance criteria, management decision, sustainable development of territories, decision support system

  • Technology for Producing Ammonium Nitrate with Addition of Potassium Salt of Monochloroacetic Acid

    One of the methods of thermodynamic stabilization of AN (ammonium nitrate) crystals, which is currently used not only as nitrogen fertilizer, but also as an environmentally friendly oxidant for gas-generating fuels for various purposes, is the technology of obtaining low-defect crystal structures. It is known that the potassium ion is a phase stabilizer of AN, and chlorine-containing compounds affect the rate of thermal decomposition of AN; therefore, there has been made an attempt to use a modifier, which includes both elements: potassium salt of monochloroacetic acid (PMCHAA) and to study its effect on phase transitions and thermal decomposition of AN depending on the amount of additive, type of solvent and crystallization temperature. As a result of the tests, it has been found out that a sample containing 1% PMCHAA (obtained at 80 ° C from an aqueous medium) most fully meets the requirements for EnCS oxidizers: the rate of thermal decomposition of the sample is 2.65 times higher than that of AN crystals recrystallized under the same conditions; the rate of modification transition IV – III has been reduced by almost 3 times

    Keywords: ammonium nitrate, oxidizer, gas-generating compositions, polymorphic transition, thermal decomposition, additive, kinetics, thermodynamics, potassium salt of monochloroacetic acid, solvent, co-crystallization

  • Development of a general scheme for the movement of solid municipal waste from the consumer to the finished final product

    This article discusses the general waste management system in Russia, which includes five main areas (landfills, waste sorting complexes, waste incineration complexes, waste processing complexes, waste composting plants). Two types of sorting of municipal solid waste are considered: manual and automatic. Also, a scheme was proposed for the movement of the main products of solid municipal waste from the consumer to the finished final product.

    Keywords: municipal solid waste, waste sorting problems, waste preparation for sorting, technologies for automatic waste sorting

  • The device of the operated roofing systems: innovative materials and technologies

    The article considers the possibility of using a new generation of thermal insulation materials in construction. The authors analyze the distinctive features of thermal insulation boards, reveal the advantages and disadvantages of insulation made of extruded polystyrene foam. Based on the analysis, it is concluded that these materials and technologies are a promising alternative to traditional ones.

    Keywords: green roofs, thermal insulation, extruded polystyrene foam, fire hazard class, water absorption, biostability, strength, durability

  • Physical and mathematical sciences. Physics

  • Research of the process of dryung asbestos ores in a suspended layer

    The article presents the results of research of dryung asbestos ores in a suspended layer. Equations are obtained that reflect the effect of the initial moisture content of the ore on the Nusselt criterion. The obtained dependencies can be used for calculating tube-dryers for asbestos ores in a suspended layer.

    Keywords: drying, tube-dryer, asbestos ore, suspended layer, moisture content, speed of the material, mass transfer coefficient, Reynolds criterion, Nusselt criterion, criterion equations

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Assesment of information security during data transfer between access subjects in the client-server architecture

    As a result of the work, an algorithm was developed and a software tool was implemented that allows ensuring the confidentiality of information in the interaction between access subjects. The study of the dependence of the selected parameters of the elliptic curve on the processing time and transmission of the encrypted message has been carried out. Studies have shown that with an increase in the values of the parameters of the elliptic curve, the time for processing confidential information increases due to insufficient system resources.

    Keywords: confidential information, information leakage, asymmetric encryption, information reliability, system resources, communication channel

  • Modeling of the temperature effect on biological tissues during their laser incision

    The paper deals with the issues of modeling the processes of laser radiation absorption in contact with a biological object, which leads to a significant increase in temperature in the interaction zone. For organic tissues, when the temperature rises above a certain value, their damage begins, and then the processes of destruction are observed. With an increase in the speed of movement of the laser beam on the surface, the width of the incision and the level of injury decrease, as the time of interaction of the radiation with the tissue decreases. In this paper, we consider various models for performing calculations: using complex ratios taking into account the thickness or using expressions for an object of semi-infinite thickness. The regularities of the growth of the average temperature and the process of establishing the thermal balance on the surface of the body, depending on the parameters of the laser radiation pulses, are also investigated.

    Keywords: computer simulation, medical laser, laser incision, biological tissues, temperature field, level of injury, pulse packet, speed of movement

  • Development of a software module for drawing and report generation based on the results of strength validation of metal structures in a two-dimensional setting

    Bar structures are widespread in construction due to their economy, freedom of design shapes and sizes. As a result, automation of design and calculation of such structures is an urgent task. As part of the study, the task of developing a software module that generates output documents of a web application for calculating bar metal structures has been implemented. The software is developed on the .NET platform using the Spire.Doc and netDxf plug-in libraries. The developed module generates AutoCAD-compatible drawings and text reports in accordance with Russian standard SP 16.13330. The possibility of automated generation of reports allows more efficient use of the computing complex in production, cost reduction and calculation accuracy increase.

    Keywords: Design in construction, bar structure, computing system, web development, report, drawing

  • Development of authentication protocols for low-orbit spacecraft based on parallel codes of residual class systems

    Low-orbit satellite communication systems (LowSCS) are successfully used to organize stable communication in Northern latitudes. With the help of theLowSCS, effective management and monitoring of the process of production and transportation of hydrocarbon raw materials is provided. This approach allows us to ensure minimal costs for the extraction and delivery of oil and gas from fields located on the shelf of the Arctic Ocean. As the number of countries engaged in the development of Arctic Ocean deposits increases, so does the number of LowSCS groupings. To prevent the possibility of interception and imposition of a delayed command to control the intruder satellite, it is necessary to increase the information secrecy of the LowSCS with the help of "friend-foe" identification systems for the spacecraft. At the same time, to ensure high imitability in such systems, it is proposed to use zero-knowledge authentication protocols. To increase their efficiency, the article suggests using the codes of residual number system (RNS). The novelty of this idea is that the use of parallel SOC codes will reduce the time spent on performing arithmetic operations implemented in authentication protocols. And this, in turn, will lead to an increase in the information secrecy of the NSSS, so the probability of selecting the correct response signal by the intruder satellite decreases. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to develop authentication protocols for low-orbit spacecraft based on parallel codes of residual class systems, the use of which will reduce the time for satellite identification.

    Keywords: satellite identification system, zero-knowledge authentication protocols, residue number system

  • Current state of innovation infrastructure Development in the NCFD subjects

    An assessment of the innovation infrastructure of the regions of the North Caucasus Federal District was carried out, which showed that their organizational structure does not create conditions for the effective functioning of innovative processes, which is expressed in weak innovation activity, a small number of innovative firms, a low degree of commercialization of scientific developments and their implementation efficiency, in the absence of effective market mechanisms. financing science and innovation.

    Keywords: innovation infrastructure, innovation activity, regional economy, institutional environment

  • Algorithms for the chatbot to search for products

    This article discusses the algorithms used for the operation of the chatbot. Within the framework of these algorithms, a general approach to the operation of dialog systems is considered. And the algorithm of the dialog system is proposed, based on a general approach, which includes a natural language processing module. The algorithms that will be applied to the chatbot to search for products of interest to the user are also presented. Among the considered algorithms are such as the algorithm of interaction between the user and the chatbot, the processing of user requests and the algorithm of natural language processing. A modified algorithm for natural language processing is also presented, taking into account the necessary requirements.

    Keywords: chatbot, natural language processing, user request processing, named entity recognition, dialog manager, dialog system

  • Problems of using additional devices to expand the diagnostic capabilities of certain physiological parameters and ways to solve them

    Diagnostic imaging is a necessary procedure for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of at least 25% of patients worldwide. Therefore, the expansion of opportunities for interaction between the doctor and the patient at a distance during instrumental diagnostics leads to an increase in positive treatment results. This article discusses the ways and problems of using additional devices, including robotic systems, in diagnostics. Having investigated the ways of using ultrasound diagnostic devices as the most informative and useful diagnostic method, and complementary technologies for expanding the capabilities of ultrasound diagnostics, the general principles of working with this equipment were determined. An algorithm for working during the survey was also developed. The definition of these principles allowed us to develop our own solution to the problems that arise when conducting a survey using these technologies.

    Keywords: interactive medicine, patient, health status, health diagnostics, severity, condition assessment, counseling, instrumental diagnostics, personalized medicine, services

  • Simulation of the interaction between a retail enterprise and a commercial bank

    The development of the construction industry leads to an increase in small businesses both in construction and in the sale of building materials. Besides, small business fills the market with various goods, solves various social and economic issues such as unemployment, industry monopoly. However, its activity can't exist without sufficient financial support. A two-level mathematical model of interaction between a retail enterprise and a commercial bank as a funding structure is considered. To research the proposed model, the method of simulation modeling based on numerical search was used. A computer program was created to build a Stackelberg equilibrium algorithm with hierarchical control as an impulsion. The algorithm can be used to find the optimal values of the control parameters of an individual entrepreneur and a commercial bank. These values maximize the objective functions and profit of the system participants. The identification of the proposed model was carried out on the basis of data obtained from the Internet. Finally, the results were obtained using numerical examples.A number of conclusions could be made about the functioning of the entire system.

    Keywords: hierarchy,two-level system, credit, Stackelberg, small business, bank

  • Application of expert assessments for the distribution of forces and means based on the transport model for simultaneous calls to fire

    An approach to solving the problem of the distribution of forces and means (CMS) in those situations when the dispatcher of the city's fire garrison receives almost simultaneously (on a short time interval) several fire calls is proposed. Fire trucks of various specializations and other equipment of fire and rescue units are subject to distribution. A transport problem (TZ) is proposed as a formal model for the optimal distribution of C&S by calls. However, to use it, it is necessary to know the payment function (transport table), reflecting indicators of various types, which a priori cannot be reliably set. To overcome this uncertainty, it is proposed to use a structured expert procedure presented in the form of a detailed algorithm. The operation of the algorithm is illustrated with a model example.

    Keywords: transport model, optimal distribution, objective function, linear programming problem, pairwise comparisons, ranking, distribution plan

  • Assessment of the suitability of the model of passenger movement between stops of urban passenger public transport to identify hidden patterns of passenger traffic behavior

    The model of passenger traffic movement was evaluated to identify hidden patterns in the processes of passenger traffic formation using standard electronic computers with general-purpose software. Several sessions of simulating the movement of passengers between stops of urban passenger public transport, belonging to different levels of attractiveness of stops for passengers, were conducted. The features of the quasi-deterministic movement of passengers between stops of urban passenger transport that are not included in the list of stops of mass attraction of passenger traffic, and points of mass attraction of passengers are considered. Examples of typical patterns in the choice of destination stops and in the hourly flow of passengers from departure stops are given. The comparison of the number of daily visits to stops of mass attraction of passenger traffic, obtained by processing the simulation results with the initial statistical data, is carried out.

    Keywords: passenger transport, passenger traffic models, passenger behavior patterns, modeling

  • Software system for visualizing robot movement routes along optimal trajectories inside an industrial workshopof

    In the automation of production, the use of robots is an important direction. When developing algorithms for controlling the movement of such a machine, multidirectional problems arise. In a critical situation, the robot must not harm workers or collide with its fellow robot. At the same time, the car must move along the optimal route. The article analyzes the methods of finding optimal paths on square navigation grids. The wave method on undirected planar graphs, the A* algorithm (an extension of Dijkstra's algorithm), and the D* Lite algorithm for graphs with non-constant or previously unknown structure were chosen for the analysis. A visualization and testing system in C#has been developed for the research and testing of algorithms. The system is implemented using the Microsoft Visual Studio 2019 IDE software tools and external GraphX and Emgu CV libraries. A unique feature of the system is the ability to directly read images of shop floor maps in widely used graphic formats and automatically convert them to a format that is understandable to the system. First, the user uploads the shop floor plan. For easier processing, the image is converted to two colors: black and white. Then the image is processed by the Emgu CV library, at the output we get all the contours of stationary obstacles. Then, depending on the size of the robot, an orthogonal navigation grid is superimposed. The analysis of the obtained results allows us to conclude that it is better to use a method (the D* Lite algorithm) that allows for a non-constant or unknown grid structure in advance.

    Keywords: visualization, program, graphic format, work, shop, map, square, grid, cell, navigation, optimal route, planar graph

  • Development of a software product for analysis and prediction of gas concentrations in power transformers oil

    The article is devoted to the development of a software product that analyzes the concentration of gases (H2; CO; C2H4; C2H2) measured in transformer oil and set as a function of time. Product development consists of two stages. The first step is the task of classifying transformers. The second stage is predicting reliable operation before a possible failure based on the concentrations of dissolved gases in the transformer oil set as the initial data. During the development of the software product, the frameworks for creating web applications Flask and ReactJS were used, the models were trained on the frameworks H2O.ai, LightGBM, Sklearn.

    Keywords: machine learning, regression, power transformers, gas concentration, web-service

  • Simulation of the design activity diversification of innovative enterprise

    The work is devoted to the problems of using modern digital technologies to manage the implementation of programs for the development of regional socio-economic systems. An approach based on the use of intelligent (knowledge-oriented) informationsystems for monitoring and analyzing the progress of programs is proposed. As a model for representing knowledge about the subject area, it is proposed to use the apparatus of the theory of linguistic variables and fuzzy production rules, which makes it possible to take into account the high level of uncertainty due to both the specifics of socio-economic processes and possible changes in external conditions. The inference engine included in the information system is based on the explicitly interpreted procedure of Mamdani's fuzzy logical inference, which makes it possible to form explanations of the course of reasoning. The developed structure of the intellectual information system is a concretization and expansion of the traditional structure, taking into account the reflection of the specifics of the tasks of managing the implementation of programs for the socio-economic development of the region. The preliminary results of the experimental operation of the research prototype of the developed system can serve as confirmation of the effectiveness of the proposed design solutions.

    Keywords: regional socio-economic program, linguistic variable, fuzzy production rule, fuzzy logical inference, information and analytical system

  • Algorithm for optimal planning of operations to eliminate the consequences of fires and emergencies by a heterogeneous group of autonomous mobile robots

    An algorithm for planning work in a group of autonomous mobile robots performing the functions of eliminating the consequences of fires or emergency situations (ES) is proposed. Such a multi-agent robotic system (MRTS) should work effectively without the direct participation of an operator performing the functions of a decision maker (DM). The autonomy of the MRTS is due to the emergency conditions with foci of infection, dangerous for the stay of people. The paper proposes an approach and a corresponding algorithm for constructing a machine-learning model that solves the problem of optimal current planning for emergency response operations for MRTS, where an experienced decision-maker is the teacher.

    Keywords: mobile robots, work area, job distribution, limited resources, linear programming problem, optimal planning, constraints

  • The relationship between the cognitive and affective components of student attitudes towards friendship. Part II

    The work is based on the results of a survey conducted among students of Grozny and Rostov-on-Don at the end of 20219. The cognitive component was measured by a test method, using 11 primary features. According to them, an integral indicator of the cognitive perception of friendship for each respondent was calculated using a modified method of analyzing hierarchies. The affective component of student attitudes towards friendship was determined by the semantic differential technology Ch. Osgood, using a special semantic scale with 20 bimodal features. Based on the results obtained, the individual level of emotional perception of friendship was calculated within the framework of the previously developed phenomenological semantic model. Statistical analysis of the obtained indicators of cognitive and affective perception showed that both in general for the study groups and for the general population, the correlation coefficients are small. For Rostov, about 0.17, for Grozny-0.273, and for the total population of respondents for these two cities-0.243.The scattering of experimental data is close to isotropic. All this indicates the statistical independence of these two components of attitudes in general for the studied samples. This confirms both the generally accepted opinion and the previously obtained results (for several thousand respondents) when studying other social attitudes. However, for certain subgroups of the studied audience, the statistical relationship between these two parameters is more significant. Thus, approximately 1/3 of the respondents, both in Rostov and Grozny, indicated a higher level of emotional perception, compared to cognitive. For these subgroups, the correlation coefficient for Rostov is 0.8, for Grozny-0.87, and for the two cities in total – 0.79. For the remaining 2/3 of the respondents (they are characterized by a higher level of cognitive perception compared to emotional perception), the correlation coefficients are slightly lower, but still exceed the results obtained without dividing into subgroups. For students of Rostov-on-Don-0.5, Grozny-0.44, and for the two cities in total-0.46. The revealed statistical relationship between the studied components of attitudes is associated with the influence on the formation of these components of the psychological type of respondents. And the subgroups we have identified differ precisely in their psychological type. But this hypothesis requires further testing.

    Keywords: friendship, attitudes, cognitive component, test method, affective component, semantic differential technology, statistical analysis, correlation, subgroups, statistical relationship