The parameters of the mixers widely used in the practice of water treatment are given. A fundamentally new design of the mixing unit is proposed, which provides a process of rapid and complete mixing of reagents in a thin layer of a rotating flow of a pre-created water-air mixture using the method of concentrated coagulation. At the same time dispersion of air bubbles is carried out. A detailed description of the design, operating principle and basic design parameters of the mixer used in the mixing unit.
Keywords: natural water, coagulant, mixer, concentrated coagulation, aeration, velocity gradient, rotational motion
The method of calculating the coagulant dose using the technology of concentrated coagulation with the addition of air is given. The paper considers the peculiarities of using aluminum sulphate and aluminum polyoxychloride as a coagulant in different periods of the year, taking into account seasonal changes in water quality. Recommended values of parameters used in calculations of the coagulant dose during the year are given. The refined method of calculating the coagulant dose allows determining the weight dose of the reagent, including the mixed coagulant, taking into account the required air saturation of water, as well as the optimal volume of the so-called auxiliary water flow sent for concentrated coagulation.
Keywords: coagulant dose, aluminum sulphate, aluminum polyoxychloride, air saturation, concentrated coagulation, auxiliary flow, mixed coagulant
The features of natural water reagent treatment are considered. The evaluation of the efficiency of coagulants, the most frequently used in the Russian Federation, rational methods of their introduction into the treated water is given. A method of water treatment is proposed, which allows to use the advantages and minimize the disadvantages of mineral coagulants. Experimental data confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method of concentrated coagulation using a mixed coagulant are presented.
Keywords: water of superficial sources, coagulant, sulfate aluminum, aluminum polyoxychloride, the concentrated input of a coagulant
The work of the sensors of passenger traffic control in conditions of a dense stream of people in the controlled section of the doorway was conducted. The results showed the possibility of determining the direction of movement of a person due to a change in the distance between the sensor and the moving person. The interference due to the high density of passenger traffic, which, however, does not lead, however, to the development of the corresponding algorithms, to false alarms of the sensors is detected. However, additional field studies are required on the vehicle of the passenger counting device based on ultrasonic distance measurement sensors
Keywords: passenger, ultrasound, passenger transport, road transport, distance sensor, Arduino, bus
The field studies of the device in a controlled section of the doorway of the trolleybus were carried out. Studies have shown the operability of the device with the appropriate information processing algorithm, which allows to extract an information signal from short-term interference. It is necessary to carry out on the vehicle additional field studies of the passenger counting device based on ultrasonic proximity sensors aimed at eliminating the reflection of interference from the walls and, accordingly, improving the accuracy of counting the number of incoming and outgoing passengers.
Keywords: passenger, ultrasound, passenger transport, road transport, distance sensor, Arduino, trolleybus