The conclusion of the relations for the study of the propagation or diffraction of electromagnetic waves in the semiconductor layers of composite materials, which are also recommended to be used in the creation of onboard antennas and microwave devices with less weight. Both exact and simplified mathematical expressions for the rapid quantitative estimation of the complex wave number are obtained. Using the example of carbon fiber plastics with high conductivity, it is shown that their use makes it possible to create waveguide paths and antenna reflectors up to a millimeter wavelength range.
Keywords: carbon fiber, electrodynamics, composite, propagation, absorption, antenna
Theoretical relations are presented that serve to estimate the absorbing properties of thin optical films using functions that determine the envelopes of interference extrema in the transmission spectrum of a thin optical film on a plane-parallel transparent substrate, as well as the experimental results of estimating infrared losses in Ge films doped with Si.
Keywords: interference, absorption, optics, film, refractive index
In this work, the basic relations of relativistic rocket dynamics in the case of a multicomponent jet jet are obtained and investigated. Various types of relativistic rockets with a single-component jet jet are considered as special cases of the general theory. The limiting transition to nonrelativistic rocket dynamics has been made.
Keywords: relativistic dynamics, multicomponent jet stream, ion engine, photon rocket
The article presents an overview of the work on modeling the behavior of a double electric layer in membranes under influences of various nature, including the example of various surface phenomena (adsorption, surfactants, adhesion, wedging pressure, electroosmosis, etc.). It was noted that the size and distribution of the charge over the surface near which it is formed has an effect on the structure of the DES; to obtain the potential distribution, it is necessary to know the structure of the membrane-electrolyte solution interface; it is intermediate to be able to calculate the charge distribution, and, accordingly, to calculate the potential distribution itself. It was pointed out that when choosing a mathematical interpretation of the process, the Poisson equation is often used, taking into account the self-consistent field, or the Navier-Stokes equations are solved together with the Nernst-Planck equation and the electroneutrality condition; the Gui-Chapman model is used to describe processes with low accuracy by molecular dynamics methods, supplemented by the ion adsorption condition according to the Langmuir isotherm; when modeling the electrolyte current, the description of the surface current of ions is used, taking into account the viscous properties of the medium.
Keywords: double electric layer, zeta potential, membrane, primembrane layer, spatial charge density, Navier-Stokes equation, surface current, Poisson equation, capacitor, fluid flow potential
The paper considers the quasi-stationary motion of a viscous compressible fluid in the gap of a thrust bearing with a nonlinear contour of the support surface of the slider. It is assumed that the slider is stationary, and the guide with the molten surface moves in the direction of narrowing the gap at a time-dependent speed. Well-known equations are used for the solution: the equation of motion of a compressible fluid, the equation of continuity, the equation of state and the equation describing the profile of the molten contour of the support ring. The case is considered for the extreme and non-extreme case, that is, when the parameter of the specific heat of melting tends to infinity and vice versa. As a result of an accurate self–similar solution, the main operational characteristics are determined - velocity and pressure fields, load capacity and friction force. The problem of the stability of the movement of the support ring is also solved. The final stage of theoretical calculation methods is numerical analysis.The analysis of its results showed that the modified design of the thrust sliding bearing, taking into account additional factors, has a bearing capacity value exceeding the standard designs by 8-11% in the range of load-speed modes studied. The coefficient of friction is reduced by 9-13%.
Keywords: quasi-stationary flow, extreme case, metal coating, non-standard support profile, hydrodynamic mode, stability of the guide movement
The article presents the results of research of dryung asbestos ores in a suspended layer. Equations are obtained that reflect the effect of the initial moisture content of the ore on the Nusselt criterion. The obtained dependencies can be used for calculating tube-dryers for asbestos ores in a suspended layer.
Keywords: drying, tube-dryer, asbestos ore, suspended layer, moisture content, speed of the material, mass transfer coefficient, Reynolds criterion, Nusselt criterion, criterion equations
This article examines the implications of the application of quantum computing in the field of image processing. A basic conversion associated with gray level processing, such as an image negative, is considered. The article shows how this operation can be expressed using quantum formalism. Whether quantum image processing (in some aspects or some specific applications) has an advantage over classical image processing in realistic scenarios remains to be seen. This depends on solving a number of problems, some of which are unique to quantum image processing, such as feature extraction of a quantum image. Some of them are common to quantum algorithms, such as noise processing. Identifying one of them will significantly speed up the study of this field.
Keywords: qubit, quantum circuit, entanglement, quantum circuit, register, quantum recognition, gate, parallelism, interference, quantum computer
This article is devoted to solving the problem of research and development of methods for the functioning of quantum algorithms and models of quantum computing devices. The quantum algorithm, implemented in the work, makes it possible to transform a classical image into a quantum state, isolate boundaries and convert a halftone image to a binary one, shows the possibilities of quantum information theory in the interpretation of classical problems. The aim of the work is computer simulation of a quantum algorithm for solving the problem of transforming a classical image using quantum computing tools and methods, studying existing pattern recognition algorithms and creating an effective recognition model using the properties and methods of quantum computing. The relevance of these studies lies in mathematical and software modeling and implementation of a quantum algorithm for solving classes of problems of a classical nature. The scientific novelty of this area is primarily expressed in the constant updating and supplementation of the field of quantum research in a number of areas, and the computer simulation of quantum physical phenomena and features is poorly covered in the world.
Keywords: quantum algorithm, quantum bit, quantum computing model, quantum circuit, entanglement, quantum circuit, register, quantum recognition, gate, parallelism, interference, quantum computer
The article considers the dynamics of an ion beam in a laser mass – EMAL-2 spectrometer.a numerical model based on the "large - particle" method is Implemented, taking into account the influence of spatial charge fields and the interaction of charged particles with the field of an electrodynamic system. The software package that implements the mathematical model of ion beam motion consists of two parts. The first part is a program written in C++, in which initial conditions are set, the Coulomb interaction between large particles is calculated using the "particle-particle" method, the system of differential equations (1) is integrated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, and the results are recorded and processed. The second part is a script for the FreeFem++ package, which implements the solution of partial differential equations using the finite element method. A series of numerical experiments and their comparison with the data obtained experimentally are carried out.
Keywords: large particle method, laser mass spectrometer, particle-particle method, electrodynamic system, Runge-Kutta method, laser plasma, magnetic analyzer, ion beam, focusing system, triangulation
In this work a breaking of interatomic bonds of kaolinite unit cell under a microwave irradiation was studied. Using density functional theory method (DFT), free energy of the unit cell was computed: without an external field created by the microwave radiation, with the field along (100), and (010) and (001) directions of the unit cell. It was shown that unit cell free energy differences are several kJ/mol. Computational results are backed up by a band structure computation. The conlcution is that there is no bond breaking in the caolinite unit cell caused by the microwave irradiation.
Keywords: kaolinite, microwave field, covalent bonds, discontinuity, ab inito, density functional theory, unit cell, free energy, electronic band structure, clay
Idea of existence of black holes is the cornerstone of the set of the theories describing evolution of galaxies and stars. In spite of the fact that their existence at most of scientists does not raise doubts, formally these objects are considered as hypothetical. Many astrophysicists consider that our Universe arose from singularity which began to extend from the moment of the Big Bang, however, if black holes do not exist, then it, obviously, it is necessary to rethink the ideas. In this article the view, other than the hypothesis of the Big Bang, of the structure of the Universe and of the possibility of existence of black holes will be considered.
Keywords: cosmological model, a Big Bang, the final Universe, astrophysics, a black hole, supermassive black holes, methods of search of black holes, gravitational forces