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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • Production of synthetic liquid fuels on hybrid catalysts

    The article discusses the features of obtaining liquid synthetic motor fuels from natural gas and other carbonaceous raw materials. The use of such fuels in the operation of construction and road equipment can help reduce the negative impact on the environment, especially in areas with increased requirements for air quality. It has been shown that one of the effective methods for obtaining synthetic fuel fractions is one-pot synthesis using bifunctional catalysts, which make it possible to combine the hydrocarbon synthesis process and the hydroprocessing stage, including hydrocracking and hydroisomerization processes.

    Keywords: synthetic motor fuels, bifunctional catalysts, promoters, one-pot synthesis

  • Overview: Advances and Challenges in Analyzing and Diagnosing Product Defects by Digital Methods

    The article provides an overview of the analysis and diagnosis of product surface defects, evaluated using digital image processing. The search for scientific publications was carried out mainly in the Scopus and RSCI scientometric bases for the period 2019-2023. The purpose of this article is to determine the best methods for assessing the destruction of materials using digital images. The main methods of processing and analyzing digital images are considered. The perspective of unification of segmentation modes by digital image acquisition sources and combining images from various recording sources to obtain objective information on the nature of material destruction is shown. To reduce the time for assessing the degree of destruction of materials, it is proposed to gradually use the methods of segmentation, filtering digital images of defects in metal products with subsequent calculation by a neural network.

    Keywords: defect, control, digital image, neural network.

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Assessment of the rational directions of the forest industry development of the Russian Arctic border regions based on cluster analysis

    The purpose of this study is to present the forestry complex development scenarios of the Republic of Karelia and the Murmansk region. Based on the use of factor analysis and cluster analysis, 27 central foresters of the study region were divided into 9 clusters according to 20 indicators. The selected indicators took into account the characteristics of wood resources, natural-production conditions and road infrastructure. Based on cluster profiles, as well as on topographical, climatic, soil map and vegetation maps, scenarios for the development of the study region forestry complex in the context of the resulting clusters. The results of the study showed that as they move from south to north, a gradual impoverishment of wood resources occurs. The efforts of the state and business should be aimed at resolving issues of road infrastructure, involving deciduous, small, energy wood in production circulation. Given the natural and production conditions, which are largely determined by the moist forest soils and the extreme vulnerability of the northern ecosystems, in the process of logging, it is especially necessary to pay attention to the minimization of the negative impact of logging operations on the soil cover.

    Keywords: zoning, forest industry, factor analysis, cluster analysis, k-means cluster analysis, logging, forest management

  • Applying DIANA hierarchical clustering to improve text classification quality

    The article presents ways to improve the accuracy of the classification of normative and reference information using hierarchical clustering algorithms.

    Keywords: machine learning, artificial neural network, convolutional neural network, normative reference information, hierarchical clustering, DIANA

  • On the development of an information system for processing the results of sports competitions on the 1C:Enterprise platform

    The article describes the results of the development of an information system for processing the results of sports competitions on the 1C:Enterprise platform for informational support of the sports social project Don Family League, which involves entire families in sports and physical education. An object model of configuration data is presented, which allowed structuring the subject area, highlighting the main application objects, their details and the relationships between them, which was later used for algorithmization of the solution and software implementation of complex tools on the 1C platform.:Enterprise". The software package was tested as part of information support for the activities of the Don Family League project in the period from July 2022 to July 2023 and showed high efficiency.

    Keywords: All-Russian physical culture and sports complex «Ready for work and Defense», the Don Family League project, processing of results of sports competitions, rating of individual standings, rating of family standings, rating of team standings

  • Methodology of formation and determination of parameters of machine learning algorithms for classification of electronic documents according to the importance of information for officials of organizations

    The article considers the methodology of forming and determining the parameters of machine learning algorithms for classifying electronic documents according to the importance of information for officials of organizations, which differs from the known ones by the dynamic formation of the structure and number of machine learning algorithms, due to the automated determination of sets of structural divisions of the organization, sets of keywords reflecting the tasks and functions of structural divisions in the process of automated analysis of the Organization's Regulations, The positions of structural units based on the theory of pattern recognition.

    Keywords: lemmatization, pattern recognition, machine learning algorithm, electronic document, vectorization, formalized documents

  • Zero Trust Architecture Design Patterns

    The features of designing security systems based on the zero trust model are considered. The problem of developing security policy patterns is considered. The problem of choosing the points of application of the security policy based on the analysis of the risk flow is discussed. An example of a security pattern in the DRAKON language is given.

    Keywords: information security, zero trust architecture, enterprise architecture, security policy patterns

  • Model of configuration of structural and functional characteristics of departmental information systems

    This paper considers the conditions and factors affecting the security of information systems functioning under network reconnaissance conditions. The developed model is based on the techniques that realize the dynamic change of domain names, network addresses and ports to the network devices of the information system and false network information objects functioning as part of them. The formalization of the research problem was carried out. The theoretical basis of the developed model is the theories of probability and random processes. The modeled target system is represented as a semi-Markov process identified by an oriented graph. The results of calculation of probabilistic-temporal characteristics of the target system depending on the actions of network reconnaissance are presented, which allow to determine the mode of adjustment of the developed protection measures and to evaluate the security of the target system under different conditions of its functioning.

    Keywords: departmental information system, network intelligence, structural and functional characterization, false network information object

  • Large data deduplication using databases

    To date, a huge amount of heterogeneous information passes through electronic computing systems. There is a critical need to analyze an endless stream of data with limited means, and this, in turn, requires structuring information. One of the steps in solving the problem of data ordering is deduplication. This article discusses the method of removing duplicates using databases, analyzes the results of testing work with various types of database management systems with different sets of parameters.

    Keywords: deduplication, database, field, row, text data, artificial neural network, sets, query, software, unstructured data

  • Artificial intelligence: the danger of inflated expectations

    Currently, digitalization as a technological tool penetrates into the humanitarian sphere of knowledge, linking technocratic and humanitarian industries. An example is legal informatics, in which conceptual devices of quite different – at first glance – areas of human knowledge are interfaced. However, the desire to abstract (formalize) any knowledge is the most important task in the "convergence" of computer technologies and mathematical methods into a non-traditional humanitarian sphere for them. The paper discusses the problems generated by the superficial idea of artificial intelligence. A typical example is the attempt of some authors in jurisprudence to give computer technologies, often referred to as artificial intelligence by humanitarians, an almost sacred meaning and endow it with legal personality.

    Keywords: artificial intelligence, deep learning, machine learning, hybrid intelligence, adaptive behavior, digital economy, digital law, legal personality of artificial intelligence

  • Model and methodology for calculating the placement of rescue units to ensure the safety of people in places of mass recreation in the water area and beaches (on the example of the subject of St. Petersburg)

    In the article, the author examines the organization of the placement of rescue units of the search and rescue service of St. Petersburg and identifies problematic issues of ensuring the safety of people in places of mass recreation of the population in the water area and beaches. The purpose of the work is to develop a model and methodology for calculating the necessary and optimal number of rescue forces and means to improve the safety of people in the water area. As a result of the research, a model and methodology for calculating the required number of rescue forces and means in places of mass recreation of the population and beaches, on the example of water bodies of St. Petersburg, have been developed and proposed. A comparative analysis of the compliance of the data obtained in the calculations on the necessary and sufficient number of rescue stations and rescue posts on the beaches, taking into account the specifics (features) of the water area and the current standards of their (rescue stations and posts) placement on the water bodies of St. Petersburg.

    Keywords: rescue stations, rescue posts, area of responsibility, search and rescue operations, calculation model and methodology, safety in the water area, safety on beaches and in places of mass recreation

  • Using segment tree in PostgreSQL

    The article considers an approach to solving the problem of optimizing the speed of aggregating queries to a continuous range of rows of a PostgreSQL database table. A program module based on PostgreSQL Extensions is created, which provides construction of a segment tree for a table and queries to it. Increased query speed by more than 80 times for a table of 100 million records compared to existing solutions.

    Keywords: PostgreSQL, segment tree, query, aggregation, optimization, PosgreSQL Extensions, asymptotics, index, build, get, insert

  • Modification of the algorithm for correcting errors that occur during the operation of the satellite authentication system

    Frequency multiplexing (OFDM) methods have become the main basis for most outbred systems. These methods have also found application in modern systems of low-orbit satellite Internet (LOSIS). For example, the StarLink system uses OFDM transmission systems that use a signal frame consisting of 52 channels to transmit data. One way to increase the data rate in OFDM is to replace the Fourier transform (FT) with a faster orthogonal transform. As such, the modified wavelet transform (MWT) of Haar was chosen. The Haar MVP allows to reduce the number of arithmetic operations during the orthogonal signal transformation in comparison with the PF. The use of integer algebraic systems, such as Galois fields and modular residue class codes (MCCR), makes it possible to increase the speed of a computing device that performs orthogonal transformations of signals. Obviously, the transition to new algebraic systems should lead to changes in the structure of OFDM systems. Therefore, the development of structural models of an OFDM transmission system using the Haar MWP in the Galois field and the ICCM is an urgent task. Therefore, the aim of the work is to develop structural models of wireless OFDM systems using a modified integer discrete Haar transform, which can reduce the execution time of the orthogonal signal transformation. And this, in turn, will lead to an increase in the data transfer rate in the SNSI.

    Keywords: orthogonal frequency multiplexing, modification of the Haar wavelet transform, structural models of execution of the Haar MVP, Galois field, modular residue class codes

  • Estimating the power consumption of wireless sensor network nodes

    The article proposes an algorithm for ensuring the minimum power consumption of end nodes in a wireless network of sensors. A simulation model of the process of information exchange in a wireless network of sensors developed in the Matlab - Simulink software environment is presented, the use of which allows estimating the total power consumption when transmitting messages by all end nodes of the network during a given time interval.

    Keywords: wireless sensor network, LoRaWAN, Internet of Things, Internet of Things, IoT, power consumption, simulation model, Simulink, signal attenuation, frame transmission

  • The automatic equalization of loads in multi motor electric drives

    Multi motor electric drives are the systems, in which the torques from two or more motors are summarized. This summarisation may be done direct on common output shaft of indirect, for example, on the common load through individual transmiisions. In such a systems the problem of common torque distribution among motors exists. Usually this problem is being solved by equal distribution of torques among motors. There are some ways to achieve equal torques. One of them is overlaping of mechanical characteristics of motors by influencing separatly to the hardness and the speed of mechanical charecteristic of motor.

    Keywords: multimotor drive, load equalization, automatic control, mechanical characteristic, mathematical description of load distribution, load distribution observing

  • Preprocessing speech data to train a neural network

    This article analyzes data processing problems for training a neural network. The first stage of model training - feature extraction - is discussed in detail. The article discusses the method of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients. The spectrum of the voice signal was plotted. By multiplying the vectors of the signal spectrum and the window function, we found the signal energy that falls into each of the analysis windows. Next, we calculated the mel-frequency cepstral coefficients. The use of a chalk scale helps in audio analysis tasks and is used in training neural networks when working with speech. The use of mel-cepstral coefficients significantly improved the quality of recognition due to the fact that it made it possible to see the most informative coefficients. These coefficients have already been used as input to the neural network. The method with mel-frequency cepstral coefficients made it possible to reduce the input data for training, increase productivity, and improve recognition clarity.

    Keywords: machine learning, data preprocessing, audio analysis, mel-cepstral coefficients, feature extraction, voice signal spectrum, Fourier transform, Hann window, discrete cosine transform, short Fourier transform

  • Information processing using a VGA adapter for an FPGA camera

    This article describes the first stage of the research work on the development of an FPGA-based camera for vehicle identification tasks, which are widely used in automated weight and size control points. Since the FPGA is an alternative to conventional processors, which features the ability to perform multiple tasks in parallel, an FPGA-equipped camera will be able to perform the functions of detecting and identifying vehicles at the same time.Thus, the camera will not only transmit the image, but also transmit the result of processing for problem-oriented control systems, decision-making and optimization of data flow processing, after which the server will only need to confirm or deny the results of the camera, which will significantly reduce the image processing time from all automated points of weight and size control.In the course of development, a simple VGA port board, a static image program for displaying it on a monitor in 640x480 resolution, and a pixel counter program were implemented. EP4CE6E22C8 is used as FPGA, the power of which is more than enough to achieve the result.

    Keywords: system analysis methods, optimization, FPGA, VGA adapter, Verilog, recognition camera, board design, information processing, statistics

  • An effective method for automated software testing of consumer electronics devices using cloud devices

    In the context of stable demand for consumer electronics, current methods of automated software testing in production often prove to be inefficient, leading to an increase in software errors. This paper examines an enhanced method of automated testing using Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and cloud technologies. The main objective of the research is to create a universal and effective system for automated software testing, capable of scaling and adapting to various platforms and libraries. The results of the experiment confirmed the possibility of integrating the described method with existing testing systems without significant modifications, ensuring a higher efficiency of the testing process and a reduction in its duration.

    Keywords: automated testing, consumer electronics devices, consumer electronics, software, remote procedure call, software quality, software testing, cloud devices, software production, testing task manager

  • Investigation of the corrective capabilities of the noise-immune code of the system of residual classes

    This article explores the LTE-R group, in which the OFDM system has a special place, and considers the possibility of developing new methods for detecting error-correcting coding to test high data transmission under rate estimation conditions. The problems associated with the transmission of large amounts of information in conditions of high speed of movement of trains and the volatility of the environment are considered, as well as the features of interference associated with the railway infrastructure. As noise-immune codes, modular codes are used, which, unlike criminal BCH codes, are arithmetic.

    Keywords: LTE-R standard, OFDM system, modular codes, noise immunity, error hit interval, BCH codes, error packet, error rate

  • Optimization based on mixing methods when solving multicriteria selection problems

    The method of analyzing hierarchies has long been described, studied and applied in practice. In order to reduce the factor of subjectivity inherent in many decisions, we are considering the option of using the hierarchy analysis method, in which the assessment is carried out not by the decision maker, but by a group of independent experts. Thus, we propose a method for solving multicriteria optimization problems based on mixing (combination) of two methods - the method of analyzing hierarchies and the method of expert assessment.

    Keywords: Optimality criteria, alternative, decision maker, optimization, method of expert assessments, method of hierarchy analysis, competence of experts, consistency of expert opinions

  • A comprehensive criterion for evaluating the effectiveness of programmable logic controllers

    The choice of equipment of technological enterprises, especially when the characteristics of the equipment are close in values, remains an urgent task. In our work, to evaluate the effectiveness of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), a comprehensive criterion for evaluating efficiency is proposed, as well as a method for calculating it using numerical methods. To calculate the complex efficiency criterion, the values of the significant characteristics of the controllers selected by us are converted into points on a linear scale. To refine the calculation results, we applied one of the Newton-Cotes numerical methods, namely the trapezoid method. Next, we used the method of cubic interpolation of the obtained curves to increase the accuracy of calculations. The proposed method is simple and does not require a lot of calculations. At the same time, its application makes it possible to calculate complex PLC efficiency criteria based on characteristics relevant to a particular control process.

    Keywords: programmable logic controller, characteristics, numerical methods, trapezoid method, cubic interpolation method, aggregation of characteristics, ABAK PLC, Siemens PLC, OWEN PLC

  • Technical science. Building and architecture

  • Identification of force loads on a bearing system using neural network technologies

    One of the actual problems in the field of analysing loads and impacts on bearing structures is their identification. It means the point of application, the type of action and its intensity in cases where there is an impact result, but the parameters that caused this result are not determined. For example, it is an accident action, as a result of which the structure is deformed and collapsed. The solution of such problems arises when analysing accidents on load-bearing structures in construction, as well as when monitoring the deformed state of structures in time. The paper proposes to use the principles of neural network modelling to solve the problem of identifying the impact in the form of a concentrated force on the example of beam systems. The values of linear and angular nodal displacements at some action are considered as input data to neurons. As an example, the linearly deformable beam of constant stiffness is considered, the material of which is a continuous isotropic medium.

    Keywords: neural network, deflections, load-bearing structure, displacement, deformation, identification