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  • Physical and mathematical sciences. Physics

  • A method of manufacturing ferroelectric ceramic based on lithium metaniobate

    The manuscript presents results of a study ferroelectric ceramic metaniobate lithium (PCR-61) which containing Li2O, Nb2O5 and CaO in the fallowing ratio, mass. % Li2O 10,03-10,10; Nb2O5 89,22-89,87; CaO 0,03-0,75. The most effective was the offset component in alcohol and air environments, which providing sufficiently high rate of sintering, the formation on their base high density ceramic with the most perfect crystal structure and microstructure of the equilibrium. Using the foregoing results the solid phase material was prepared by one-stage synthesis (SPS) for Tsint.1 = 820℃, τ = 5h. with followed by sintering by conventional ceramic technology (CCT) (without pressure) at a temperature Ts. = 1150℃, τ = 2h. After machining, the samples were polarized ("oil" polarization). The promising method SPS + CCT was presented. Material based on piezoelectric ceramics metaniobate lithium (PCR 61) was obtained by the SPS + CCT, close to the parameters of hot-pressed (HP) samples and can be used in electrical devices under the influence of ultra-high temperatures. The effectiveness of heterovalent modification as a method of directional changes in the properties of lithium metaniobate was shown.

    Keywords: ferroelectric ceramics, metaniobates lithium, solid-phase synthesis, conventional ceramic technology, the electrical properties, high temperature technology

  • Choice, control, and correction of electrolyte galvanizing restoring of surfaces of details of cars

    The choice of the electrolyte for the galvanic deposition of coatings is one of the fundamental points to ensure high quality and reliability of the reconstruction of surfaces of machine parts. Zinc electroplated coatings currently used in the automotive and car repair production mainly as protective coatings. However, in addition to the protective properties of zinc galvanic coating has sufficient hardness and wear resistance, and damping characteristics. From the composition and type of the electrolyte depends on the quality of sediment, its continuity, physical and mechanical properties, adhesion to the substrate, and the performance of the deposition process, the service life of the electrolyte, and the frequency of service (filtering, correction, and so on), the mechanism of occurrence of electrolysis, types and rate of the electrochemical processes. When the metal plating of zinc are used mainly the following types of electrolytes: slightly acidic; acidic, coroborate, chloride, soleplate; alkaline, and mixed electrolytes. In use, in practice, the greatest use of acid, weakly acidic and alkaline. The optimal choice of the electrolyte galvanizing ambiguous, as the process of electrolysis depends on many factors and is characterized by more than twenty different indicators. The analysis showed that the main selection criteria are: quality of galvanic sludge - corrosion resistance, adhesion to the substrate, the distribution of sediment thickness, aromatherapist, flexibility, adaptability to soldering and decorative properties; technological parameters of deposition - the range of the cathodic and anodic current density, the productivity of the deposition, the temperature of the electrolyte, the velocity of the electrolyte, etc.; safety for humans and the environment; saving resources and costs; the stability of the electrolyte and ease of maintenance.

    Keywords: passive film, adsorption, sedimentation productivity, electrocrystallization, mechanical activation, crystal lattice

  • Finite element modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters of cylindrical structure

    This paper considers modeling of piezoelectric generator, which is an element of the devices of energy storage. The piezoelectric generator is a cylindrical coordinate with the attached proof mass. The device frame makes the vertical harmonic vibrations with the given amplitude and frequency. By developed models directly calculated in packages ANSYS and ACELAN, the dependence of the natural frequencies and the output voltage on the geometrical dimensions, material combinations. We numerically studied two cases: vibrations at the resonance frequency and vibrations in the low frequency region at the frequency which is much smaller frequency of the first resonance. In addition, we investigate simplified accounting model of the proof mass.


  • Study the possibility of using electrostatic treatment to intensify the processes of convective drying

    Convective drying is the most common method of dryingthat may be intensified by the treatment of root crops and vegetables in an electrostatic field. According to the results of the experiments was to determine the optimum treatment time 3-3.5 hours at 55 C, with tension in the range of 20-40 kW / m. Under the influence of the electrostatic processing of hygroscopic moisture removal rate is accelerated. Organoleptic performance compared with conventional convection drying are not changed.

    Keywords: electrostatic field processing and drying horticultural crops, loss of moisture, unit of drying with the electrostatic processing, carrot, onion, beetroot

  • The method for electrochemical studies on the behavior of gray cast iron in sulfuric acid electrolyte during recovery of machine parts electroplating galvanizing

    The implementation of electrochemical research is needed to identify the nature and magnitude of the impact of the main technological factors on the processes taking place during anodic etching of grey cast iron in the electrolyte on the basis of sulphate of zinc. The main technological factors that affect electrochemical processes occurring, is the temperature and acidity of the electrolyte, the concentration of the basic salt of zinc in the electrolyte and other components, the speed of flow of the electrolyte in the cathode space, the cathodic and anodic current density, rotation speed of the electrode, modes of mechanical activation. Electrochemical studies were carried out in three modes: potentiometric, potentiostatic and galvanostatic. Resulting in the obtained polarization curves for all three modes. To identify the degree of influence on the growth of the limiting cathode current density of mechanical activation of the cathode surface was carried out electrochemical studies, which were obtained cathode potentiometric curves. These studies took place with anode under similar research conditions in the same laboratory setting. The main difference cathodic electrochemical studies was that mechanical activation of the rotating electrode was carried out by introducing into the electrochemical cell of the lever, with a fixed abrasive material, pressing it against the surface of the test electrode. Thus, this electrode has already played the role of the cathode. Conducting electrochemical studies of the behavior of iron in sulfuric acid electrolyte galvanizing by etching, mechanical activation of the cathode surface and deposition of the electroplated layer, allowed us to obtain sufficient experimental data to identify rational modes of electrolysis at all stages.

    Keywords: technological factor, electrochemical studies, polarization curves, electrochemical cell, electrode potentiostat

  • The effect of the accelerated diffusion on the performance properties of copper wires with Nickel coating

    In this paper we attempt to quantitatively describe the process of diffusion of Nickel atoms to the copper substrate, taking into account the accelerated diffusion along the grain boundaries. A model experiment allows us to get guidance on the selection of the optimum thickness of the Nickel coating to ensure stable operation of wire with desired characteristics

    Keywords: Nickel coating, the optimum thickness, copper wire, enhanced diffusion, diffusion coefficient, diffusion distribution of atoms, the grain boundary, modeling, task Fisher

  • Dielectric spectroscopy of ceramic solid solutions based on modified lead titanate

    The manuscript traced the impact of changes in the content of alkaline-earth elements on the dielectric spectra of solid solutions based on lead titanate. Two concentration areas with sharply differing nature of the manifestations of dispersion phenomena were identified. First (0.02≤α1≤0.24) is characterized by strong dispersion ε/ε0 in all temperature range and not allow to generate maximum of ε/ε0 for Curie temperature at low frequencies, the second (0.24≤α1≤0.36) - a sharp decrease of Δε in the ferroelectric phase and complete disappearance of it in the solid solutions, SS, with α1 = 0.36, indicating stabilization of the structure with the introduction of alkaline SS elements. It was found that as increased the concentration of modifiers in the compositions there is a stabilization of their structure with a gradual decrease in the phase transition temperature. Formation of two concentration areas where changes macro properties SS is undoubtedly a consequence of their correlation with the phase diagram of the studied SS, which is experiencing a transformation in the neighborhood of α1 ~ 0.24, due to the transition from two-phase to single-phase state. The results obtained by the authors can be used in the development of high-temperature (α1 0.24 ) anisotropic ferroelectric materials.

    Keywords: ferroelectric piezoceramics, lead titanate, alkaline earth elements, modifiers, solid phase synthesis dielectric spectra

  • Structure and dielectric properties of B-substituted lanthanum nickelates

    Ceramic materials based on solid solutions La2-xSrxMO4, where M is Ni, Fe, Co, Cu, x = 0, 2 with layered K2NiF4 structure (structure of Ruddlesden-Popper) have been synthesized and investigated. The correlation of dielectric properties with a normalized bond lengths of the metal-oxygen has been observed. The existence of nickel atoms in the 2+ oxidation state for nickelates has been shown.

    Keywords: solid solutions, colossal dielectric constant, resistivity, x-ray diffraction, dielectric spectrum, XANES, low-resistivity semiconductors, the activation energy, the distortion of the coordination polyhedra, oxygen non-stoichiometry

  • The study of titanium powder production on calcium hydride reduction process

    Using modern physical and chemical methods of research, such as differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, the recovery process titanium dioxide with calcium hydride at different temperatures and the stoichiometric ratios of the raw material was studied. The influence of experimental conditions on the chemical and particle size distribution of the synthesized product have been established. The mathematical dependence of the qualitative composition of titanium powder from the reduction temperature and the stoichiometric ratio of the starting components was obtained. According to the results of the experimental data revealed that the increase in diameter of grains and reducing the specific surface area of the synthesized powder increases the content of titanium in the sample. It is shown that the main problem of obtaining titanium powder is their increased oxidation caused by high specific surface

    Keywords: " titanium powder, titanium dioxide, calcium hydride, mixture, process calcium hydride-thermal reduction"

  • The influence of silver additive on electrical resistance of the manganese dioxide surface

    In the work presented for the first time experimental data on measurement of the ESR and impedance of a coating of manganese dioxide obtained from manganese nitrate with the addition of silver nitrate by thermolysis method. Analysis of coating (XRF, SEM, XRD) of manganese dioxide with the addition of silver show a significant decrease in the resistance of the coatings. The development of energy efficient coating of manganese dioxide is one of the key objectives in the technology of low-impedance tantalum capacitors. Obtained by thermolytic method (the processing temperature of 250 and 300 °C) coating of manganese dioxide with the addition of silver nitrate 27% solution of manganese nitrate was analyzed using the RLC. The results of studies on the effect of additives in the impregnation solution of manganese nitrate on the resistance of coatings of manganese dioxide showed the possibility of significant reduction of the resistance (15 times at a temperature of thermolysis at 250°C, 45 times at a temperature of thermolysis 300 °C) by reference to the precursor silver nitrate; raising the temperature of the thermolysis of manganese nitrate from 250 to 300°C leads to the decrease of the resistance of the coating; use freshly prepared solution of manganese nitrate leads to the decrease of the resistance of the coating.

    Keywords:  manganese nitrate, silver nitrate, manganese oxide, alloying, resistance, thermolysis

  • Technical science. Instrument making, metrology and information and measuring devices and systems

  • Software for the use of video-ocular DCM-310 in histological research

    The description of the developed software to apply digital video-ocular DCM-310 in the process of the histological examination is provided. The program allows us to display on the computer screen tissue samples and automatically measure the region of interest. This allows the doctor-pathologist to perform work at a high technical level and increase the efficiency of his work.

    Keywords: histology, diagnostics of malignant tumours, biopsy, measurements, video-ocular, software, microscope

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Specification of conditions of transport jams occurrence in networks with traffic light control

    In article process of vehicles queue formation before an adjustable intersection is considered. Classical models of delay and queue assume, that all vehicles arriving to intersection take places on a stop line. If in free conditions of movement the given assumption is comprehensible, in the conditions of the saturated movement the account of existential distribution of queue is required. For this purpose the description of queues dynamics is added by variables of queues front position and queues departure front position. Under concept the front of queue is understood position of last car in queue, and as departure front - position of the car beginning movement at travel of queue. Analytical dependences for calculation of values of the specified variables are resulted, both at constant arrival of vehicles, and at any cyclic profile of flow. Conditions of transport links blocking with the account of the entered variables are specified.

    Keywords: Delay, length of queue, transport links, blocking, traffic light control, front of queue, front of queues departure

  • Sociographic measurement of latent conflict potential students of KChR Part II

    In this article the method of investigation of latent conflict potential student administrative centers of the Federation of South Russia (for example, KCR). It is based on direct empirical data collected at the beginning of 2015 questioning of students of Karachay-Cherkessia State University. Distribution functions of the respondents to assess the cognitive component of the various components of latent conflict potential are provided. All these functions are divided by their sociological meaning of a number of groups: cognitive characteristics of socio-economic security, indicators of loyalty to the authorities (they also evaluate the legitimacy), and a large group of respondents to identify the level of protest. Using a consistent factorization, eventually the entire initial set reduced to three indicators of latent conflict potential: the index of socio-economic expectations indicator of legitimacy, the index of the protest. Distribution functions are provided for these characteristics. To assess the level of overall latent conflict potential is proposed to use a matrix of conflict, showing how the contributions of individual parties and the total effect.

    Keywords: latent conflict potential, questioning, cognitive performance, distribution function, factor analysis, indexes, security, legitimacy of the protest, the matrix of latent conflict potential

  • Mathematical model of optimal placing distributed data base onto Local Computing Network knots on the basis of two-level client-server architecture

    Using a device for close exponential networks of mass service a mathematical model for solving the problem of getting integral indexes of distributed information system on the basis of local computing network using two-level architecture “client-server” was worked out. The peculiarity of the model being worked out is in making a selective choice of information at the server and via the channel of communication not the full data base is transmitted but some separate parts of it, which satisfy the conditions of SQL-request search. Using the developed earlier heuristic algorithm the problem of optimal placing the distributed data base onto the local computing system knots according to the criterion of minimal average time of system reaction for users’ requests was solved. The results of numerical experiments are given.

    Keywords: Distributed data base, selective information choice, SLQ-request, transaction, system conditions space, stationary probability, transitive probability, service intensity in network knots, information volume matrix, system reaction time

  • Mathematical model of optimal placing distributed data base onto Local Computing Network knots on the basis of file-server architecture

    Using a device for close exponential networks of mass service a mathematical model for solving the problem of getting integral indexes of distributed information system on the basis of local computing network using file-server architecture was worked out. The heuristic algorithm of optimal placing the distributed data base onto local computing network knots according to the criterion of minimal average time of system reaction for users’ requests is represented. This algorithm uses the understanding of data bases as the points of multidimensional space and the knots in which those data bases are placed as clusters or classes. The results of numerical experiments are given.

    Keywords: Distributed information system, distributed data base, local computing system, mass service network, conceptual model, exponential law of distributing the random value, stationary probability, mark process, the global balance equation, system reaction tim

  • Analysis of mathematical models for calculating the fields of electro and range radar systems by sequential analysis

    Analysis of the actual conditions of the experiment to test the adequacy of the models for calculating the electro-acoustic field, on the basis of information obtained during the test location systems and monitoring shows that they fully comply with the possible scope of the method of sequential analysis.

    Keywords: computer, model, electroacoustics, radar, statistics, analysis, accuracy, reliability, probability, detection, object

  • Econometric models use by the study of marriages in the Russian Federation

    Econometric analysis of the marriages number in Russia is presented in this article for the reflec-tion and predict of seasonal fluctuations. The additive model explaining 95% of the total variation of the time series levels of the of the marriages number during the study period is built.

    Keywords: seasonal component, time series, marriages, econometric model, trend, random component, mov-ing average, analytical alignment

  • Investigation of the characteristics of energy in the spark plug gap idling motor

    Experimental studies of the ignition system of the engine idling. With the help of current and voltage sensors made visualization, transformation and analysis of information about the characteristics of energy spark discharge in the cylinder of the engine idling. Produced by processing waveform is shown that with increasing rotation speed of motor there is a reduction of the energy released in the electrode gap of the spark plug. Reducing the energy released (at a constant value of the energy stored in the magnetic field of the ignition coil) due to its redistribution between the capacitive and inductive discharge phases. By increasing rotation speed of motor the breakdown voltage increases, so does the excess air ratio, which also increases the breakdown voltage electrode gap spark plugs.

    Keywords: ignition system, spark, spark ignition, ignition coil, motor, electrical equipment, ignition sparkplugs

  • Mathematical description of the main parameters on the mode of operation of gas compressor units for transportation of natural gas

    A proposed approach to monitoring technological processes of transport of gas, in particular examines the main input and output parameters of gas pumping units, transmission system, affecting the quality indicators of the transported product (natural gas).

    Keywords: Natural gas compressor station gas compressor unit, elements, input parameter, output parameter, supercharger

  • Using of artificial neural network for forecasting of electric power consumption by energy provider

    This paper presents using of artificial neural network for short-term and medium-term forecasting of electric power consumption by energy provider. As a program for modeling an artificial neural network we chose MATLAB with its Neural Network Toolbox. The article reviews two training algorithms. First was the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and the second was Bayesian regularization algorithm. Comparing this algorithms was founded that the second one Bayesian regularization algorithm is more effective for making short-term and medium-term forecasts of electric power consumption. Also it is found, that artificial neural network can be used for one-day forecast management accurate within 2.5% from actual consumption. Comparing the forecasting data with actual data of electric power consumption allowed to the conclusion that artificial neural network which was chosen can be used on practice for forecasting of electric power consumption of energy provider for its effective work on the wholesale electricity market.

    Keywords: energy provider, forecasting, plan-by the hour forecast, data base of energy consumption, wholesale electricity market, dynamic series, artificial neural network, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, Bayesian regularization algorithm, neural network architectur

  • Gender analysis of contemporary student youth behaviour: applied research

    Studies of gender and family dynamics in society are of great interest for foreign and domestic scientific communities. The results of studying the trends in these areas from the point of view of the students about the "ideal behaviour" of modern men and women are very important, as the social group of young people has always been and is a specific indicator of the state of the society. Today, the availability of various models of the behavior of the sexes is significantly determined by the media. However, new, variable "patterns of behavior" in society does not mean denial of traditional patterns of conduct of men and women. Despite some "westernization" of the young Russians, the national gender factor "works" thereby consolidating society and preserving the national identity of individuals.

    Keywords: gender, family, values, youth, student youth

  • Improving the efficiency of transport enterprise through the use information system of control and business planning

    With the development of market relations and the increasing competition in the Russian work with the end consumer is becoming increasingly important for each market participant. Consumer behavior - a new field of knowledge that will help market participants to maintain and even increase the profitability of of their business at relatively low material costs. The fastest way to increase income of the company without investing significant resources, is to increase customer loyalty. For the numerical evaluation and opportunities to influence on customer loyalty is computed the customer loyalty index. To increase the effectiveness of measures taken to study and improve customer loyalty index developed a set of program measures on the basis of 1c Alfa Auto. Using the information from the system 1C Alpha - Auto and reports on the level of customer loyalty index was developed a project - the funnel of service that will increase the profits gained in the automotive service.

    Keywords: 1C Alpha- Auto, customer loyalty, index of customer loyalty,funnel service, repeated repairs, complaints, the main funnel, funnel the - another funnel entry